• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of geneticsGeneticsCurrent IssueInformation for AuthorsEditorial BoardSubscribeSubmit a Manuscript
Genetics. Nov 2000; 156(3): 1349–1362.
PMCID: PMC1461316

GL3 encodes a bHLH protein that regulates trichome development in arabidopsis through interaction with GL1 and TTG1.

Abstract

Arabidopsis trichome development and differentiation is a well-studied model for plant cell-fate determination and morphogenesis. Mutations in TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) result in several pleiotropic defects including an almost complete lack of trichomes. The complex phenotype caused by ttg1 mutations is suppressed by ectopic expression of the maize anthocyanin regulator R. Here it is demonstrated that the Arabidopsis trichome development locus GLABRA3 (GL3) encodes an R homolog. GL3 and GLABRA1 (GL1) interact when overexpressed together in plants. Yeast two-hybrid assays indicate that GL3 participates in physical interactions with GL1, TTG1, and itself, but that GL1 and TTG1 do not interact. These data suggest a reiterated combinatorial model for the differential regulation of such diverse developmental pathways as trichome cell-fate determination, root hair spacing, and anthocyanin secondary metabolism.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (621K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Abe H, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Urao T, Iwasaki T, Hosokawa D, Shinozaki K. Role of arabidopsis MYC and MYB homologs in drought- and abscisic acid-regulated gene expression. Plant Cell. 1997 Oct;9(10):1859–1868. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ang LH, Chattopadhyay S, Wei N, Oyama T, Okada K, Batschauer A, Deng XW. Molecular interaction between COP1 and HY5 defines a regulatory switch for light control of Arabidopsis development. Mol Cell. 1998 Jan;1(2):213–222. [PubMed]
  • Atchley WR, Fitch WM. A natural classification of the basic helix-loop-helix class of transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 May 13;94(10):5172–5176. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Liu Y, Wang L, Kermicle JL, Wessler SR. Molecular consequences of Ds insertion into and excision from the helix-loop-helix domain of the maize R gene. Genetics. 1998 Dec;150(4):1639–1648. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Campuzano S, Modolell J. Patterning of the Drosophila nervous system: the achaete-scute gene complex. Trends Genet. 1992 Jun;8(6):202–208. [PubMed]
  • Lloyd AM, Walbot V, Davis RW. Arabidopsis and Nicotiana anthocyanin production activated by maize regulators R and C1. Science. 1992 Dec 11;258(5089):1773–1775. [PubMed]
  • Ludwig SR, Habera LF, Dellaporta SL, Wessler SR. Lc, a member of the maize R gene family responsible for tissue-specific anthocyanin production, encodes a protein similar to transcriptional activators and contains the myc-homology region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Sep;86(18):7092–7096. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cowling RJ, Kamiya Y, Seto H, Harberd NP. Gibberellin dose-response regulation of GA4 gene transcript levels in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 1998 Aug;117(4):1195–1203. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Miséra S, Müller AJ, Weiland-Heidecker U, Jürgens G. The FUSCA genes of Arabidopsis: negative regulators of light responses. Mol Gen Genet. 1994 Aug 2;244(3):242–252. [PubMed]
  • Deng XW, Matsui M, Wei N, Wagner D, Chu AM, Feldmann KA, Quail PH. COP1, an Arabidopsis regulatory gene, encodes a protein with both a zinc-binding motif and a G beta homologous domain. Cell. 1992 Nov 27;71(5):791–801. [PubMed]
  • Moffatt BA, McWhinnie EA, Agarwal SK, Schaff DA. The adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-encoding gene of Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene. 1994 Jun 10;143(2):211–216. [PubMed]
  • de Pater S, Pham K, Memelink J, Kijne J. RAP-1 is an Arabidopsis MYC-like R protein homologue, that binds to G-box sequence motifs. Plant Mol Biol. 1997 May;34(1):169–174. [PubMed]
  • de Vetten N, Quattrocchio F, Mol J, Koes R. The an11 locus controlling flower pigmentation in petunia encodes a novel WD-repeat protein conserved in yeast, plants, and animals. Genes Dev. 1997 Jun 1;11(11):1422–1434. [PubMed]
  • Németh K, Salchert K, Putnoky P, Bhalerao R, Koncz-Kálmán Z, Stankovic-Stangeland B, Bakó L, Mathur J, Okrész L, Stabel S, et al. Pleiotropic control of glucose and hormone responses by PRL1, a nuclear WD protein, in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 1998 Oct 1;12(19):3059–3073. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Durfee T, Becherer K, Chen PL, Yeh SH, Yang Y, Kilburn AE, Lee WH, Elledge SJ. The retinoblastoma protein associates with the protein phosphatase type 1 catalytic subunit. Genes Dev. 1993 Apr;7(4):555–569. [PubMed]
  • Oppenheimer DG, Herman PL, Sivakumaran S, Esch J, Marks MD. A myb gene required for leaf trichome differentiation in Arabidopsis is expressed in stipules. Cell. 1991 Nov 1;67(3):483–493. [PubMed]
  • Fields S, Song O. A novel genetic system to detect protein-protein interactions. Nature. 1989 Jul 20;340(6230):245–246. [PubMed]
  • Galway ME, Masucci JD, Lloyd AM, Walbot V, Davis RW, Schiefelbein JW. The TTG gene is required to specify epidermal cell fate and cell patterning in the Arabidopsis root. Dev Biol. 1994 Dec;166(2):740–754. [PubMed]
  • Paz-Ares J, Ghosal D, Wienand U, Peterson PA, Saedler H. The regulatory c1 locus of Zea mays encodes a protein with homology to myb proto-oncogene products and with structural similarities to transcriptional activators. EMBO J. 1987 Dec 1;6(12):3553–3558. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goff SA, Cone KC, Chandler VL. Functional analysis of the transcriptional activator encoded by the maize B gene: evidence for a direct functional interaction between two classes of regulatory proteins. Genes Dev. 1992 May;6(5):864–875. [PubMed]
  • Goodrich J, Carpenter R, Coen ES. A common gene regulates pigmentation pattern in diverse plant species. Cell. 1992 Mar 6;68(5):955–964. [PubMed]
  • Quattrocchio F, Wing JF, van der Woude K, Mol JN, Koes R. Analysis of bHLH and MYB domain proteins: species-specific regulatory differences are caused by divergent evolution of target anthocyanin genes. Plant J. 1998 Feb;13(4):475–488. [PubMed]
  • Herman PL, Marks MD. Trichome Development in Arabidopsis thaliana. II. Isolation and Complementation of the GLABROUS1 Gene. Plant Cell. 1989 Nov;1(11):1051–1055. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schardl CL, Byrd AD, Benzion G, Altschuler MA, Hildebrand DF, Hunt AG. Design and construction of a versatile system for the expression of foreign genes in plants. Gene. 1987;61(1):1–11. [PubMed]
  • Hülskamp M, Misŕa S, Jürgens G. Genetic dissection of trichome cell development in Arabidopsis. Cell. 1994 Feb 11;76(3):555–566. [PubMed]
  • Schnittger A, Folkers U, Schwab B, Jürgens G, Hülskamp M. Generation of a spacing pattern: the role of triptychon in trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 1999 Jun;11(6):1105–1116. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shieh MW, Wessler SR, Raikhel NV. Nuclear targeting of the maize R protein requires two nuclear localization sequences. Plant Physiol. 1993 Feb;101(2):353–361. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Koornneef M, Dellaert LW, van der Veen JH. EMS- and radiation-induced mutation frequencies at individual loci in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Mutat Res. 1982 Mar;93(1):109–123. [PubMed]
  • Smith TF, Gaitatzes C, Saxena K, Neer EJ. The WD repeat: a common architecture for diverse functions. Trends Biochem Sci. 1999 May;24(5):181–185. [PubMed]
  • Sondek J, Bohm A, Lambright DG, Hamm HE, Sigler PB. Crystal structure of a G-protein beta gamma dimer at 2.1A resolution. Nature. 1996 Jan 25;379(6563):369–374. [PubMed]
  • Larkin JC, Oppenheimer DG, Lloyd AM, Paparozzi ET, Marks MD. Roles of the GLABROUS1 and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA Genes in Arabidopsis Trichome Development. Plant Cell. 1994 Aug;6(8):1065–1076. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Szymanski DB, Jilk RA, Pollock SM, Marks MD. Control of GL2 expression in Arabidopsis leaves and trichomes. Development. 1998 Apr;125(7):1161–1171. [PubMed]
  • Larkin JC, Young N, Prigge M, Marks MD. The control of trichome spacing and number in Arabidopsis. Development. 1996 Mar;122(3):997–1005. [PubMed]
  • Szymanski DB, Lloyd AM, Marks MD. Progress in the molecular genetic analysis of trichome initiation and morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Trends Plant Sci. 2000 May;5(5):214–219. [PubMed]
  • Tamagnone L, Merida A, Parr A, Mackay S, Culianez-Macia FA, Roberts K, Martin C. The AmMYB308 and AmMYB330 transcription factors from antirrhinum regulate phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco . Plant Cell. 1998 Feb;10(2):135–154. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Torii KU, McNellis TW, Deng XW. Functional dissection of Arabidopsis COP1 reveals specific roles of its three structural modules in light control of seedling development. EMBO J. 1998 Oct 1;17(19):5577–5587. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Walker AR, Davison PA, Bolognesi-Winfield AC, James CM, Srinivasan N, Blundell TL, Esch JJ, Marks MD, Gray JC. The TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 locus, which regulates trichome differentiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, encodes a WD40 repeat protein. Plant Cell. 1999 Jul;11(7):1337–1350. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Urao T, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Mitsukawa N, Shibata D, Shinozaki K. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene that encodes a MYC-related protein in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 1996 Nov;32(3):571–576. [PubMed]

Articles from Genetics are provided here courtesy of Genetics Society of America

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Gene
    Gene
    Gene links
  • GEO Profiles
    GEO Profiles
    Related GEO records
  • HomoloGene
    HomoloGene
    HomoloGene links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Pathways + GO
    Pathways + GO
    Pathways, annotations and biological systems (BioSystems) that cite the current article.
  • Protein
    Protein
    Published protein sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links
  • Taxonomy
    Taxonomy
    Related taxonomy entry
  • Taxonomy Tree
    Taxonomy Tree

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...