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Genetics. May 2000; 155(1): 391–405.
PMCID: PMC1461080

Quantitative trait loci mapping in F(2) crosses between outbred lines.


We develop a mixed-model approach for QTL analysis in crosses between outbred lines that allows for QTL segregation within lines as well as for differences in mean QTL effects between lines. We also propose a method called "segment mapping" that is based in partitioning the genome in a series of segments. The expected change in mean according to percentage of breed origin, together with the genetic variance associated with each segment, is estimated using maximum likelihood. The method also allows the estimation of differences in additive variances between the parental lines. Completely fixed random and mixed models together with segment mapping are compared via simulation. The segment mapping and mixed-model behaviors are similar to those of classical methods, either the fixed or random models, under simple genetic models (a single QTL with alternative alleles fixed in each line), whereas they provide less biased estimates and have higher power than fixed or random models in more complex situations, i.e., when the QTL are segregating within the parental lines. The segment mapping approach is particularly useful to determining which chromosome regions are likely to contain QTL when these are linked.

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Selected References

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