• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of geneticsGeneticsCurrent IssueInformation for AuthorsEditorial BoardSubscribeSubmit a Manuscript
Genetics. Jan 2000; 154(1): 181–192.
PMCID: PMC1460896

A multipartite mitochondrial genome in the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.


The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of the plant parasitic nematode Globodera pallida exists as a population of small, circular DNAs that, taken individually, are of insufficient length to encode the typical metazoan mitochondrial gene complement. As far as we are aware, this unusual structural organization is unique among higher metazoans, although interesting comparisons can be made with the multipartite mitochondrial genome organizations of plants and fungi. The variation in frequency between populations displayed by some components of the mtDNA is likely to have major implications for the way in which mtDNA can be used in population and evolutionary genetic studies of G. pallida.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (268K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Azevedo JL, Hyman BC. Molecular characterization of lengthy mitochondrial DNA duplications from the parasitic nematode Romanomermis culicivorax. Genetics. 1993 Apr;133(4):933–942. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ballinger SW, Shoffner JM, Gebhart S, Koontz DA, Wallace DC. Mitochondrial diabetes revisited. Nat Genet. 1994 Aug;7(4):458–459. [PubMed]
  • Bendich AJ. Reaching for the ring: the study of mitochondrial genome structure. Curr Genet. 1993 Oct;24(4):279–290. [PubMed]
  • Bridge D, Cunningham CW, Schierwater B, DeSalle R, Buss LW. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Sep 15;89(18):8750–8753. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fauron C, Casper M, Gao Y, Moore B. The maize mitochondrial genome: dynamic, yet functional. Trends Genet. 1995 Jun;11(6):228–235. [PubMed]
  • Feagin JE. The extrachromosomal DNAs of apicomplexan parasites. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1994;48:81–104. [PubMed]
  • Feinberg AP, Vogelstein B. A technique for radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity. Anal Biochem. 1983 Jul 1;132(1):6–13. [PubMed]
  • Griffiths AJ. Fungal senescence. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:351–372. [PubMed]
  • Gross SR, Hsieh TS, Levine PH. Intramolecular recombination as a source of mitochondrial chromosome heteromorphism in Neurospora. Cell. 1984 Aug;38(1):233–239. [PubMed]
  • Gross SR, Mary A, Levine PH. Change in chromosome number associated with a double deletion in the Neurospora crassa mitochondrial chromosome. Genetics. 1989 Apr;121(4):685–691. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hyman BC, Slater TM. Recent appearance and molecular characterization of mitochondrial DNA deletions within a defined nematode pedigree. Genetics. 1990 Apr;124(4):845–853. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jamet-Vierny C, Contamine V, Boulay J, Zickler D, Picard M. Mutations in genes encoding the mitochondrial outer membrane proteins Tom70 and Mdm10 of Podospora anserina modify the spectrum of mitochondrial DNA rearrangements associated with cellular death. Mol Cell Biol. 1997 Nov;17(11):6359–6366. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Keddie EM, Higazi T, Unnasch TR. The mitochondrial genome of Onchocerca volvulus: sequence, structure and phylogenetic analysis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1998 Sep 1;95(1):111–127. [PubMed]
  • Klein M, Eckert-Ossenkopp U, Schmiedeberg I, Brandt P, Unseld M, Brennicke A, Schuster W. Physical mapping of the mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana by cosmid and YAC clones. Plant J. 1994 Sep;6(3):447–455. [PubMed]
  • Lightowlers RN, Chinnery PF, Turnbull DM, Howell N. Mammalian mitochondrial genetics: heredity, heteroplasmy and disease. Trends Genet. 1997 Nov;13(11):450–455. [PubMed]
  • Lopez JV, Yuhki N, Masuda R, Modi W, O'Brien SJ. Numt, a recent transfer and tandem amplification of mitochondrial DNA to the nuclear genome of the domestic cat. J Mol Evol. 1994 Aug;39(2):174–190. [PubMed]
  • Lunt DH, Hyman BC. Animal mitochondrial DNA recombination. Nature. 1997 May 15;387(6630):247–247. [PubMed]
  • Melov S, Shoffner JM, Kaufman A, Wallace DC. Marked increase in the number and variety of mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in aging human skeletal muscle. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995 Oct 25;23(20):4122–4126. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Melov S, Lithgow GJ, Fischer DR, Tedesco PM, Johnson TE. Increased frequency of deletions in the mitochondrial genome with age of Caenorhabditis elegans. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995 Apr 25;23(8):1419–1425. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Melov S, Hinerfeld D, Esposito L, Wallace DC. Multi-organ characterization of mitochondrial genomic rearrangements in ad libitum and caloric restricted mice show striking somatic mitochondrial DNA rearrangements with age. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Mar 1;25(5):974–982. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moritz C. Evolutionary dynamics of mitochondrial DNA duplications in parthenogenetic geckos, Heteronotia binoei. Genetics. 1991 Sep;129(1):221–230. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moritz C, Brown WM. Tandem duplications in animal mitochondrial DNAs: variation in incidence and gene content among lizards. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Oct;84(20):7183–7187. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Okimoto R, Chamberlin HM, Macfarlane JL, Wolstenholme DR. Repeated sequence sets in mitochondrial DNA molecules of root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne): nucleotide sequences, genome location and potential for host-race identification. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Apr 11;19(7):1619–1626. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shoffner JM, Lott MT, Voljavec AS, Soueidan SA, Costigan DA, Wallace DC. Spontaneous Kearns-Sayre/chronic external ophthalmoplegia plus syndrome associated with a mitochondrial DNA deletion: a slip-replication model and metabolic therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Oct;86(20):7952–7956. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Okimoto R, Macfarlane JL, Clary DO, Wolstenholme DR. The mitochondrial genomes of two nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum. Genetics. 1992 Mar;130(3):471–498. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Snyder M, Fraser AR, Laroche J, Gartner-Kepkay KE, Zouros E. Atypical mitochondrial DNA from the deep-sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Nov;84(21):7595–7599. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thyagarajan B, Padua RA, Campbell C. Mammalian mitochondria possess homologous DNA recombination activity. J Biol Chem. 1996 Nov 1;271(44):27536–27543. [PubMed]
  • Unseld M, Marienfeld JR, Brandt P, Brennicke A. The mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains 57 genes in 366,924 nucleotides. Nat Genet. 1997 Jan;15(1):57–61. [PubMed]
  • Wallis GP. Mitochondrial DNA insertion polymorphism and germ line heteroplasmy in the Triturus cristatus complex. Heredity (Edinb) 1987 Apr;58(Pt 2):229–238. [PubMed]
  • Watanabe KI, Bessho Y, Kawasaki M, Hori H. Mitochondrial genes are found on minicircle DNA molecules in the mesozoan animal Dicyema. J Mol Biol. 1999 Feb 26;286(3):645–650. [PubMed]
  • Pont-Kingdon GA, Okada NA, Macfarlane JL, Beagley CT, Wolstenholme DR, Cavalier-Smith T, Clark-Walker GD. A coral mitochondrial mutS gene. Nature. 1995 May 11;375(6527):109–111. [PubMed]
  • Poulton J, Holt IJ. Mitochondrial DNA: does more lead to less? Nat Genet. 1994 Dec;8(4):313–315. [PubMed]
  • Zhang Z, Green BR, Cavalier-Smith T. Single gene circles in dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes. Nature. 1999 Jul 8;400(6740):155–159. [PubMed]
  • Poulton J, Deadman ME, Bindoff L, Morten K, Land J, Brown G. Families of mtDNA re-arrangements can be detected in patients with mtDNA deletions: duplications may be a transient intermediate form. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Jan;2(1):23–30. [PubMed]

Articles from Genetics are provided here courtesy of Genetics Society of America


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...