• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of geneticsGeneticsCurrent IssueInformation for AuthorsEditorial BoardSubscribeSubmit a Manuscript
Genetics. Aug 1998; 149(4): 1959–1973.
PMCID: PMC1460288

Mapping quantitative trait loci for milk production and health of dairy cattle in a large outbred pedigree.


Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk production and health of dairy cattle were mapped in a very large Holstein granddaughter design. The analysis included 1794 sons of 14 sires and 206 genetic markers distributed across all 29 autosomes and flanking an estimated 2497 autosomal cM using Kosambi's mapping function. All families were analyzed jointly with least-squares (LS) and variance components (VC) methods. A total of 6 QTL exceeding approximate experiment-wise significance thresholds, 24 QTL exceeding suggestive thresholds, and 34 QTL exceeding chromosome-wise thresholds were identified. Significance thresholds were determined via data permutation (for LS analysis) and chi-square distribution (for VC analysis). The average bootstrap confidence interval for the experiment-wise significant QTL was 48 cM. Some chromosomes harbored QTL affecting several traits, and these were always in coupling phase, defined by consistency with genetic correlations among traits. Chromosome 17 likely harbors 2 QTL affecting milk yield, and some other chromosomes showed some evidence for 2 linked QTL affecting the same trait. In each of these cases, the 2 QTL were in repulsion phase in those families appearing to be heterozygous for both QTL, a finding which supports the build-up of linkage disequilibrium due to selection.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (210K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Hoeschele I, Uimari P, Grignola FE, Zhang Q, Gage KM. Advances in statistical methods to map quantitative trait loci in outbred populations. Genetics. 1997 Nov;147(3):1445–1457. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lander ES, Botstein D. Mapping mendelian factors underlying quantitative traits using RFLP linkage maps. Genetics. 1989 Jan;121(1):185–199. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lander E, Kruglyak L. Genetic dissection of complex traits: guidelines for interpreting and reporting linkage results. Nat Genet. 1995 Nov;11(3):241–247. [PubMed]
  • Lebreton CM, Visscher PM. Empirical nonparametric bootstrap strategies in quantitative trait loci mapping: conditioning on the genetic model. Genetics. 1998 Jan;148(1):525–535. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Logue DN, Harvey MJ. Meiosis and spermatogenesis in bulls heterozygous for a presumptive 1/29 Robertsonian translocation. J Reprod Fertil. 1978 Sep;54(1):159–165. [PubMed]
  • Mackinnon MJ, Georges MA. The effects of selection on linkage analysis for quantitative traits. Genetics. 1992 Dec;132(4):1177–1185. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Meuwissen TH, Van Arendonk JA. Potential improvements in rate of genetic gain from marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding schemes. J Dairy Sci. 1992 Jun;75(6):1651–1659. [PubMed]
  • Ron M, Band M, Yanai A, Weller JI. Mapping quantitative trait loci with DNA microsatellites in a commercial dairy cattle population. Anim Genet. 1994 Aug;25(4):259–264. [PubMed]
  • Churchill GA, Doerge RW. Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping. Genetics. 1994 Nov;138(3):963–971. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Georges M, Nielsen D, Mackinnon M, Mishra A, Okimoto R, Pasquino AT, Sargeant LS, Sorensen A, Steele MR, Zhao X, et al. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing. Genetics. 1995 Feb;139(2):907–920. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spelman RJ, Coppieters W, Karim L, van Arendonk JA, Bovenhuis H. Quantitative trait loci analysis for five milk production traits on chromosome six in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian population. Genetics. 1996 Dec;144(4):1799–1808. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • VanRaden PM, Wiggans GR. Derivation, calculation, and use of national animal model information. J Dairy Sci. 1991 Aug;74(8):2737–2746. [PubMed]
  • VanRaden PM, Klaaskate EJ. Genetic evaluation of length of productive life including predicted longevity of live cows. J Dairy Sci. 1993 Sep;76(9):2758–2764. [PubMed]
  • Vilkki HJ, de Koning DJ, Elo K, Velmala R, Mäki-Tanila A. Multiple marker mapping of quantitative trait loci of Finnish dairy cattle by regression. J Dairy Sci. 1997 Jan;80(1):198–204. [PubMed]
  • Visscher PM, Thompson R, Haley CS. Confidence intervals in QTL mapping by bootstrapping. Genetics. 1996 Jun;143(2):1013–1020. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weigel DJ, Cassell BG, Pearson RE. Prediction of transmitting abilities for productive life and lifetime profitability from production, somatic cell count, and type traits in milk markets for fluid milk and cheese. J Dairy Sci. 1997 Jul;80(7):1398–1405. [PubMed]
  • Xu S, Atchley WR. A random model approach to interval mapping of quantitative trait loci. Genetics. 1995 Nov;141(3):1189–1197. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zeng ZB. Theoretical basis for separation of multiple linked gene effects in mapping quantitative trait loci. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 1;90(23):10972–10976. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Genetics are provided here courtesy of Genetics Society of America


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Gene
    Gene links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...