• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of geneticsGeneticsCurrent IssueInformation for AuthorsEditorial BoardSubscribeSubmit a Manuscript
Genetics. Aug 1998; 149(4): 2025–2037.
PMCID: PMC1460258

Complex structure of knob DNA on maize chromosome 9. Retrotransposon invasion into heterochromatin.

Abstract

The recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) chromosome addition lines of oat (Avena sativa L.) from oat x maize crosses enables us to analyze the structure and composition of specific regions, such as knobs, of individual maize chromosomes. A DNA hybridization blot panel of eight individual maize chromosome addition lines revealed that 180-bp repeats found in knobs are present in each of these maize chromosomes, but the copy number varies from approximately 100 to 25, 000. Cosmid clones with knob DNA segments were isolated from a genomic library of an oat-maize chromosome 9 addition line with the help of the 180-bp knob-associated repeated DNA sequence used as a probe. Cloned knob DNA segments revealed a complex organization in which blocks of tandemly arranged 180-bp repeating units are interrupted by insertions of other repeated DNA sequences, mostly represented by individual full size copies of retrotransposable elements. There is an obvious preference for the integration of retrotransposable elements into certain sites (hot spots) of the 180-bp repeat. Sequence microheterogeneity including point mutations and duplications was found in copies of 180-bp repeats. The 180-bp repeats within an array all had the same polarity. Restriction maps constructed for 23 cloned knob DNA fragments revealed the positions of polymorphic sites and sites of integration of insertion elements. Discovery of the interspersion of retrotransposable elements among blocks of tandem repeats in maize and some other organisms suggests that this pattern may be basic to heterochromatin organization for eukaryotes.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (344K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • McClintock B. A Cytological and Genetical Study of Triploid Maize. Genetics. 1929 Mar;14(2):180–222. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ananiev EV, Gvozdev VA, Ilyin Yu V, Tchurikov NA, Georgiev GP. Reiterated genes with varying location in intercalary heterochromatin regions of Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes. Chromosoma. 1978 Dec 21;70(1):1–17. [PubMed]
  • Ananiev EV, Riera-Lizarazu O, Rines HW, Phillips RL. Oat-maize chromosome addition lines: a new system for mapping the maize genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 15;94(8):3524–3529. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dennis ES, Peacock WJ. Knob heterochromatin homology in maize and its relatives. J Mol Evol. 1984;20(3-4):341–350. [PubMed]
  • Feinberg AP, Vogelstein B. "A technique for radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity". Addendum. Anal Biochem. 1984 Feb;137(1):266–267. [PubMed]
  • Hu W, Das OP, Messing J. Zeon-1, a member of a new maize retrotransposon family. Mol Gen Genet. 1995 Aug 30;248(4):471–480. [PubMed]
  • Le MH, Duricka D, Karpen GH. Islands of complex DNA are widespread in Drosophila centric heterochromatin. Genetics. 1995 Sep;141(1):283–303. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • SanMiguel P, Tikhonov A, Jin YK, Motchoulskaia N, Zakharov D, Melake-Berhan A, Springer PS, Edwards KJ, Lee M, Avramova Z, et al. Nested retrotransposons in the intergenic regions of the maize genome. Science. 1996 Nov 1;274(5288):765–768. [PubMed]
  • Shepherd NS, Schwarz-Sommer Z, Blumberg vel Spalve J, Gupta M, Wienand U, Saedler H. Similarity of the Cin1 repetitive family of Zea mays to eukaryotic transposable elements. Nature. 1984 Jan 12;307(5947):185–187. [PubMed]
  • Taruscio D, Manuelidis L. Integration site preferences of endogenous retroviruses. Chromosoma. 1991 Dec;101(3):141–156. [PubMed]
  • Peacock WJ, Dennis ES, Rhoades MM, Pryor AJ. Highly repeated DNA sequence limited to knob heterochromatin in maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Jul;78(7):4490–4494. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pélissier T, Tutois S, Tourmente S, Deragon JM, Picard G. DNA regions flanking the major Arabidopsis thaliana satellite are principally enriched in Athila retroelement sequences. Genetica. 1996 Mar;97(2):141–151. [PubMed]
  • Pryciak PM, Sil A, Varmus HE. Retroviral integration into minichromosomes in vitro. EMBO J. 1992 Jan;11(1):291–303. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zhang P, Spradling AC. Insertional mutagenesis of Drosophila heterochromatin with single P elements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 26;91(9):3539–3543. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zhang P, Spradling AC. The Drosophila salivary gland chromocenter contains highly polytenized subdomains of mitotic heterochromatin. Genetics. 1995 Feb;139(2):659–670. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rivin CJ, Cullis CA, Walbot V. Evaluating quantitative variation in the genome of Zea mays. Genetics. 1986 Aug;113(4):1009–1019. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Genetics are provided here courtesy of Genetics Society of America

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...