• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
Nucleic Acids Res. Mar 15, 1996; 24(6): 995–999.
PMCID: PMC145738

A molecular clock based on the expansion of gene families.

Abstract

There is evidence to suggest that eukaryotic genomes are subject to frequent insertions and deletions of non-coding DNA. This may lead to a gradual increase or decrease in genome size, or to a dynamic equilibrium in which the overall size remains constant. We argue, however, that there is a bias favouring an accumulation of non-coding DNA in the proximity of genes. Such bias causes a progressive change in genome structure regardless of whether the overall genome size increases, decreases or remains constant. We show that this change may serve as a 'molecular clock', supplementing that provided by nucleotide substitution rates.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (58K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Doolittle WF, Sapienza C. Selfish genes, the phenotype paradigm and genome evolution. Nature. 1980 Apr 17;284(5757):601–603. [PubMed]
  • Orgel LE, Crick FH. Selfish DNA: the ultimate parasite. Nature. 1980 Apr 17;284(5757):604–607. [PubMed]
  • Saitou N, Ueda S. Evolutionary rates of insertion and deletion in noncoding nucleotide sequences of primates. Mol Biol Evol. 1994 May;11(3):504–512. [PubMed]
  • Smith GP. Evolution of repeated DNA sequences by unequal crossover. Science. 1976 Feb 13;191(4227):528–535. [PubMed]
  • Efstratiadis A, Posakony JW, Maniatis T, Lawn RM, O'Connell C, Spritz RA, DeRiel JK, Forget BG, Weissman SM, Slightom JL, et al. The structure and evolution of the human beta-globin gene family. Cell. 1980 Oct;21(3):653–668. [PubMed]
  • Jessberger R, Berg P. Repair of deletions and double-strand gaps by homologous recombination in a mammalian in vitro system. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Jan;11(1):445–457. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brown SD, Dover GA. Conservation of sequences in related genomes of Apodemus: constraints on the maintenance of satellite DNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1979 Jun 11;6(7):2423–2434. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Christie NT, Skinner DM. Evidence for nonrandom alterations in a fraction of the highly repetitive DNA of a eukaryote. Nucleic Acids Res. 1980 Jan 25;8(2):279–298. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Donehower L, Furlong C, Gillespie D, Kurnit D. DNA sequence of baboon highly repeated DNA: evidence for evolution by nonrandom unequal crossovers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Apr;77(4):2129–2133. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Charlesworth B, Langley CH, Stephan W. The evolution of restricted recombination and the accumulation of repeated DNA sequences. Genetics. 1986 Apr;112(4):947–962. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weatherall DJ, Clegg JB. Thalassemia revisited. Cell. 1982 May;29(1):7–9. [PubMed]
  • Di Rienzo A, Peterson AC, Garza JC, Valdes AM, Slatkin M, Freimer NB. Mutational processes of simple-sequence repeat loci in human populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 12;91(8):3166–3170. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tautz D, Schlötterer Simple sequences. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1994 Dec;4(6):832–837. [PubMed]
  • Dover GA. Slips, strings and species. Trends Genet. 1989 Apr;5(4):100–102. [PubMed]
  • Strand M, Prolla TA, Liskay RM, Petes TD. Destabilization of tracts of simple repetitive DNA in yeast by mutations affecting DNA mismatch repair. Nature. 1993 Sep 16;365(6443):274–276. [PubMed]
  • Acampora D, D'Esposito M, Faiella A, Pannese M, Migliaccio E, Morelli F, Stornaiuolo A, Nigro V, Simeone A, Boncinelli E. The human HOX gene family. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Dec 25;17(24):10385–10402. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cook GP, Tomlinson IM, Walter G, Riethman H, Carter NP, Buluwela L, Winter G, Rabbitts TH. A map of the human immunoglobulin VH locus completed by analysis of the telomeric region of chromosome 14q. Nat Genet. 1994 Jun;7(2):162–168. [PubMed]
  • Lacy E, Hardison RC, Quon D, Maniatis T. The linkage arrangement of four rabbit beta-like globin genes. Cell. 1979 Dec;18(4):1273–1283. [PubMed]
  • Townes TM, Fitzgerald MC, Lingrel JB. Triplication of a four-gene set during evolution of the goat beta-globin locus produced three genes now expressed differentially during development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Nov;81(21):6589–6593. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Padgett RW, Loeb DD, Snyder LR, Edgell MH, Hutchison CA., 3rd The molecular organization of the beta-globin complex of the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. Mol Biol Evol. 1987 Jan;4(1):30–45. [PubMed]
  • Paunesku T, Stevanović M, Radosavljević D, Drmanac R, Crkvenjakov R. Origin of rat beta-globin haplotypes containing three and five genes. Mol Biol Evol. 1990 Sep;7(5):407–422. [PubMed]
  • Riegman PH, Vlietstra RJ, Suurmeijer L, Cleutjens CB, Trapman J. Characterization of the human kallikrein locus. Genomics. 1992 Sep;14(1):6–11. [PubMed]
  • Maeda N. Nucleotide sequence of the haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related gene pair. The haptoglobin-related gene contains a retrovirus-like element. J Biol Chem. 1985 Jun 10;260(11):6698–6709. [PubMed]
  • McEvoy SM, Maeda N. Complex events in the evolution of the haptoglobin gene cluster in primates. J Biol Chem. 1988 Oct 25;263(30):15740–15747. [PubMed]
  • Slightom JL, Blechl AE, Smithies O. Human fetal G gamma- and A gamma-globin genes: complete nucleotide sequences suggest that DNA can be exchanged between these duplicated genes. Cell. 1980 Oct;21(3):627–638. [PubMed]
  • Barrie PA, Jeffreys AJ, Scott AF. Evolution of the beta-globin gene cluster in man and the primates. J Mol Biol. 1981 Jul 5;149(3):319–336. [PubMed]
  • Li WH, Wu CI, Luo CC. A new method for estimating synonymous and nonsynonymous rates of nucleotide substitution considering the relative likelihood of nucleotide and codon changes. Mol Biol Evol. 1985 Mar;2(2):150–174. [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...