• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
Nucleic Acids Res. Mar 1, 1996; 24(5): 943–950.
PMCID: PMC145710

Nutritional and growth control of ribosomal protein mRNA and rRNA in Neurospora crassa.


The effects of changing growth rates on the levels of 40S pre-rRNA and two r-protein mRNAs were examined to gain insight into the coordinate transcriptional regulation of ribosomal genes in the ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa. Growth rates were varied either by altering carbon nutritional conditions, or by subjecting the isolates to inositol-limiting conditions. During carbon up- or down-shifts, r-protein mRNA levels were stoichiometrically coordinated. Changes in 40S pre-rRNA levels paralleled those of the r-protein mRNAs but in a non-stoichiometric manner. Comparison of crp-2 mRNA levels with those of a crp-2::qa-2 fusion gene indicated no major effect from changes in crp-2 mRNA stability. Crp-2 promoter mutagenesis experiments revealed that two elements of the crp-2 promoter, -95 to -83 bp (Dde box) and -74 to -66 bp (CG repeat) important for transcription under constant growth conditions, are also critical for transcriptional regulation by a carbon source. Ribosomal protein mRNA and rRNA levels were unaffected by changes in growth rates when the cultures were grown under inositol-limiting conditions, suggesting that, under these conditions, transcription of the ribosomal genes in N.crassa was regulated independently of growth rate.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (130K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Alberghina L, Sturani E. Control of growth and of the nuclear division cycle in Neurospora crassa. Microbiol Rev. 1981 Mar;45(1):99–122. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Warner JR. Synthesis of ribosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiol Rev. 1989 Jun;53(2):256–271. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Waldron C, Lacroute F. Effect of growth rate on the amounts of ribosomal and transfer ribonucleic acids in yeast. J Bacteriol. 1975 Jun;122(3):855–865. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nomura M, Gourse R, Baughman G. Regulation of the synthesis of ribosomes and ribosomal components. Annu Rev Biochem. 1984;53:75–117. [PubMed]
  • Donovan DM, Pearson NJ. Transcriptional regulation of ribosomal proteins during a nutritional upshift in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1986 Jul;6(7):2429–2435. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Herruer MH, Mager WH, Woudt LP, Nieuwint RT, Wassenaar GM, Groeneveld P, Planta RJ. Transcriptional control of yeast ribosomal protein synthesis during carbon-source upshift. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Dec 23;15(24):10133–10144. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morrow BE, Johnson SP, Warner JR. The rRNA enhancer regulates rRNA transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Feb;13(2):1283–1289. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kraig E, Haber JE, Rosbash M. Sporulation and rna2 lower ribosomal protein mRNA levels by different mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1982 Oct;2(10):1199–1204. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Warner JR, Gorenstein C. Yeast has a true stringent response. Nature. 1978 Sep 28;275(5678):338–339. [PubMed]
  • Kief DR, Warner JR. Coordinate control of syntheses of ribosomal ribonucleic acid and ribosomal proteins during nutritional shift-up in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1981 Nov;1(11):1007–1015. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mager WH, Planta RJ. Coordinate expression of ribosomal protein genes in yeast as a function of cellular growth rate. Mol Cell Biochem. 104(1-2):181–187. [PubMed]
  • Nieuwint RT, Mager WH, Maurer KC, Planta RJ. Mutational analysis of the upstream activation site of yeast ribosomal protein genes. Curr Genet. 1989 Apr;15(4):247–251. [PubMed]
  • Shore D, Nasmyth K. Purification and cloning of a DNA binding protein from yeast that binds to both silencer and activator elements. Cell. 1987 Dec 4;51(5):721–732. [PubMed]
  • Huet J, Cottrelle P, Cool M, Vignais ML, Thiele D, Marck C, Buhler JM, Sentenac A, Fromageot P. A general upstream binding factor for genes of the yeast translational apparatus. EMBO J. 1985 Dec 16;4(13A):3539–3547. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Buchman AR, Kimmerly WJ, Rine J, Kornberg RD. Two DNA-binding factors recognize specific sequences at silencers, upstream activating sequences, autonomously replicating sequences, and telomeres in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Jan;8(1):210–225. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kraakman LS, Griffioen G, Zerp S, Groeneveld P, Thevelein JM, Mager WH, Planta RJ. Growth-related expression of ribosomal protein genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet. 1993 May;239(1-2):196–204. [PubMed]
  • Dabeva MD, Post-Beittenmiller MA, Warner JR. Autogenous regulation of splicing of the transcript of a yeast ribosomal protein gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Aug;83(16):5854–5857. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maicas E, Pluthero FG, Friesen JD. The accumulation of three yeast ribosomal proteins under conditions of excess mRNA is determined primarily by fast protein decay. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Jan;8(1):169–175. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Warner JR, Mitra G, Schwindinger WF, Studeny M, Fried HM. Saccharomyces cerevisiae coordinates accumulation of yeast ribosomal proteins by modulating mRNA splicing, translational initiation, and protein turnover. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Jun;5(6):1512–1521. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hariharan N, Kelley DE, Perry RP. Equipotent mouse ribosomal protein promoters have a similar architecture that includes internal sequence elements. Genes Dev. 1989 Nov;3(11):1789–1800. [PubMed]
  • Hariharan N, Perry RP. A characterization of the elements comprising the promoter of the mouse ribosomal protein gene RPS16. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Jul 11;17(13):5323–5337. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hariharan N, Perry RP. Functional dissection of a mouse ribosomal protein promoter: significance of the polypyrimidine initiator and an element in the TATA-box region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Feb;87(4):1526–1530. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mariottini P, Amaldi F. The 5' untranslated region of mRNA for ribosomal protein S19 is involved in its translational regulation during Xenopus development. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Feb;10(2):816–822. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kay MA, Jacobs-Lorena M. Selective translational regulation of ribosomal protein gene expression during early development of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Dec;5(12):3583–3592. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sturani E, Costantini MG, Zippel R, Alberghina FA. Regulation of RNA synthesis in Neurospora crassa. An analysis of a shift-up. Exp Cell Res. 1976 May;99(2):245–252. [PubMed]
  • Grigorescu A, Villee CA. Antagonistic effects of dihydrotestosterone and cyproterone acetate on the synthesis of RNA. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1973 Aug 24;319(2):165–173. [PubMed]
  • Shi YG, Tyler BM. Coordinate expression of ribosomal protein genes in Neurospora crassa and identification of conserved upstream sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Dec 11;19(23):6511–6517. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Geever RF, Huiet L, Baum JA, Tyler BM, Patel VB, Rutledge BJ, Case ME, Giles NH. DNA sequence, organization and regulation of the qa gene cluster of Neurospora crassa. J Mol Biol. 1989 May 5;207(1):15–34. [PubMed]
  • Fu YH, Marzluf GA. nit-2, the major positive-acting nitrogen regulatory gene of Neurospora crassa, encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jul;87(14):5331–5335. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kang S, Metzenberg RL. Insertional mutagenesis in Neurospora crassa: cloning and molecular analysis of the preg+ gene controlling the activity of the transcriptional activator NUC-1. Genetics. 1993 Feb;133(2):193–202. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Metzenberg RL. Implications of some genetic control mechanisms in Neurospora. Microbiol Rev. 1979 Sep;43(3):361–383. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Paietta JV. Production of the CYS3 regulator, a bZIP DNA-binding protein, is sufficient to induce sulfur gene expression in Neurospora crassa. Mol Cell Biol. 1992 Apr;12(4):1568–1577. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ichi-ishi A, Inoue H. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of tef-1, the gene encoding translation elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) of Neurospora crassa. Jpn J Genet. 1995 Apr;70(2):273–287. [PubMed]
  • Kreader CA, Heckman JE. Isolation and characterization of a Neurospora crassa ribosomal protein gene homologous to CYH2 of yeast. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Nov 11;15(21):9027–9042. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tarawneh KA, Anumula KR, Free SJ. The isolation and characterization of a Neurospora crassa gene (ubi::crp-6) encoding a ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein fusion protein. Gene. 1994 Sep 15;147(1):137–140. [PubMed]
  • Tyler BM, Harrison K. A Neurospora crassa ribosomal protein gene, homologous to yeast CRY1, contains sequences potentially coordinating its transcription with rRNA genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Oct 11;18(19):5759–5765. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wang Z, Tarawneh KA, Free SJ. Isolation, sequencing, and characterization of crp-5, a gene encoding a Neurospora ribosomal protein. Curr Genet. 1993;23(4):330–333. [PubMed]
  • Tyler BM. Transcription of Neurospora crassa 5 S rRNA genes requires a TATA box and three internal elements. J Mol Biol. 1987 Aug 20;196(4):801–811. [PubMed]
  • Tyler BM. Two complex regions, including a TATA sequence, are required for transcription by RNA polymerase I in Neurospora crassa. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Apr 11;18(7):1805–1811. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Case ME, Schweizer M, Kushner SR, Giles NH. Efficient transformation of Neurospora crassa by utilizing hybrid plasmid DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Oct;76(10):5259–5263. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Patel VB, Schweizer M, Dykstra CC, Kushner SR, Giles NH. Genetic organization and transcriptional regulation in the qa gene cluster of Neurospora crassa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Sep;78(9):5783–5787. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tyler BM, Geever RF, Case ME, Giles NH. Cis-acting and trans-acting regulatory mutations define two types of promoters controlled by the qa-1F gene of Neurospora. Cell. 1984 Feb;36(2):493–502. [PubMed]
  • Orbach MJ, Porro EB, Yanofsky C. Cloning and characterization of the gene for beta-tubulin from a benomyl-resistant mutant of Neurospora crassa and its use as a dominant selectable marker. Mol Cell Biol. 1986 Jul;6(7):2452–2461. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Held WA, Ballou B, Mizushima S, Nomura M. Assembly mapping of 30 S ribosomal proteins from Escherichia coli. Further studies. J Biol Chem. 1974 May 25;249(10):3103–3111. [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...