Logo of amjphAmerican Journal of Public Health Web SiteAmerican Public Health Association Web SiteSubmissionsSubscriptionsAbout Us
Am J Public Health. 2001 April; 91(4): 604–610.
PMCID: PMC1446646

The influence of a family program on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use.


OBJECTIVES: This study examined a family-directed program's effectiveness in preventing adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in a general population. METHODS: Adolescents aged 12 to 14 years and their families were identified by random-digit dialing throughout the contiguous United States. After providing baseline data by telephone interviews, they were randomly allocated to receive or not receive a family-directed program featuring mailed booklets and telephone contacts by health educators. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted 3 and 12 months after program completion. RESULTS: The findings suggested that smoking onset was reduced by 16.4% at 1 year, with a 25.0% reduction for non-Hispanic Whites but no statistically significant program effect for other races/ethnicities. There were no statistically significant program effects for smokeless tobacco or alcohol use onset. CONCLUSIONS: The family-directed program was associated with reduced smoking onset for non-Hispanic Whites, suggesting that it is worthy of further application, development, and evaluation.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (135K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Ellickson PL, Bell RM, McGuigan K. Preventing adolescent drug use: long-term results of a junior high program. Am J Public Health. 1993 Jun;83(6):856–861. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Flay BR, Koepke D, Thomson SJ, Santi S, Best JA, Brown KS. Six-year follow-up of the first Waterloo school smoking prevention trial. Am J Public Health. 1989 Oct;79(10):1371–1376. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Murray DM, Davis-Hearn M, Goldman AI, Pirie P, Luepker RV. Four- and five-year follow-up results from four seventh-grade smoking prevention strategies. J Behav Med. 1988 Aug;11(4):395–405. [PubMed]
  • Botvin GJ, Baker E, Dusenbury L, Botvin EM, Diaz T. Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. JAMA. 1995 Apr 12;273(14):1106–1112. [PubMed]
  • Ennett ST, Tobler NS, Ringwalt CL, Flewelling RL. How effective is drug abuse resistance education? A meta-analysis of Project DARE outcome evaluations. Am J Public Health. 1994 Sep;84(9):1394–1401. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Klitzner M, Gruenewald PJ, Bamberger E. The assessment of parent-led prevention programs: a preliminary assessment of impact. J Drug Educ. 1990;20(1):77–94. [PubMed]
  • Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl. 1999 Mar;13:103–111. [PubMed]
  • Spoth R, Lopez Reyes M, Redmond C, Shin C. Assessing a public health approach to delay onset and progression of adolescent substance use: latent transition and log-linear analyses of longitudinal family preventive intervention outcomes. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999 Oct;67(5):619–630. [PubMed]
  • Cohen DA, Linton KL. Parent participation in an adolescent drug abuse prevention program. J Drug Educ. 1995;25(2):159–169. [PubMed]
  • Perry CL, Pirie P, Holder W, Halper A, Dudovitz B. Parent involvement in cigarette smoking prevention: two pilot evaluations of the "Unpuffables Program". J Sch Health. 1990 Nov;60(9):443–447. [PubMed]
  • EDWARDS W. Behavioral decision theory. Annu Rev Psychol. 1961;12:473–498. [PubMed]
  • Foshee V, Bauman KE. Parental and peer characteristics as modifiers of the bond-behavior relationship: an elaboration of control theory. J Health Soc Behav. 1992 Mar;33(1):66–76. [PubMed]
  • Brook JS, Brook DW, Gordon AS, Whiteman M, Cohen P. The psychosocial etiology of adolescent drug use: a family interactional approach. Genet Soc Gen Psychol Monogr. 1990 May;116(2):111–267. [PubMed]
  • Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Miller JY. Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychol Bull. 1992 Jul;112(1):64–105. [PubMed]
  • Bauman KE, Ennett ST. On the importance of peer influence for adolescent drug use: commonly neglected considerations. Addiction. 1996 Feb;91(2):185–198. [PubMed]
  • Pirie PL, Murray DM, Luepker RV. Smoking prevalence in a cohort of adolescents, including absentees, dropouts, and transfers. Am J Public Health. 1988 Feb;78(2):176–178. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Patrick DL, Cheadle A, Thompson DC, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Kinne S. The validity of self-reported smoking: a review and meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. 1994 Jul;84(7):1086–1093. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from American Journal of Public Health are provided here courtesy of American Public Health Association


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    NCBI Bookshelf books that cite the current articles.
  • Compound
    PubChem chemical compound records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records. Multiple substance records may contribute to the PubChem compound record.
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem chemical substance records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records.

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...