• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of amjphAmerican Journal of Public Health Web SiteAmerican Public Health Association Web SiteSubmissionsSubscriptionsAbout Us
Am J Public Health. 2001 January; 91(1): 112–117.
PMCID: PMC1446491

Pricing and promotion effects on low-fat vending snack purchases: the CHIPS Study.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of pricing and promotion strategies on purchases of low-fat snacks from vending machines. METHODS: Low-fat snacks were added to 55 vending machines in a convenience sample of 12 secondary schools and 12 worksites. Four pricing levels (equal price, 10% reduction, 25% reduction, 50% reduction) and 3 promotional conditions (none, low-fat label, low-fat label plus promotional sign) were crossed in a Latin square design. Sales of low-fat vending snacks were measured continuously for the 12-month intervention. RESULTS: Price reductions of 10%, 25%, and 50% on low-fat snacks were associated with significant increases in low-fat snack sales; percentages of low-fat snack sales increased by 9%, 39%, and 93%, respectively. Promotional signage was independently but weakly associated with increases in low-fat snack sales. Average profits per machine were not affected by the vending interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing relative prices on low-fat snacks was effective in promoting lower-fat snack purchases from vending machines in both adult and adolescent populations.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (104K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Norris J, Harnack L, Carmichael S, Pouane T, Wakimoto P, Block G. US trends in nutrient intake: the 1987 and 1992 National Health Interview Surveys. Am J Public Health. 1997 May;87(5):740–746. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rolls BJ, Miller DL. Is the low-fat message giving people a license to eat more? J Am Coll Nutr. 1997 Dec;16(6):535–543. [PubMed]
  • Allred JB. Too much of a good thing? An overemphasis on eating low-fat foods may be contributing to the alarming increase in overweight among US adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995 Apr;95(4):417–418. [PubMed]
  • Kelder SH, Perry CL, Klepp KI, Lytle LL. Longitudinal tracking of adolescent smoking, physical activity, and food choice behaviors. Am J Public Health. 1994 Jul;84(7):1121–1126. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jeffery RW, French SA. Epidemic obesity in the United States: are fast foods and television viewing contributing? Am J Public Health. 1998 Feb;88(2):277–280. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Story M, Hayes M, Kalina B. Availability of foods in high schools: is there cause for concern? J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Feb;96(2):123–126. [PubMed]
  • Glanz K, Mullis RM. Environmental interventions to promote healthy eating: a review of models, programs, and evidence. Health Educ Q. 1988 Winter;15(4):395–415. [PubMed]
  • Wilbur CS, Zifferblatt SM, Pinsky JL, Zifferblatt S. Healthy vending: a cooperative pilot research program to stimulate good health in the marketplace. Prev Med. 1981 Jan;10(1):85–93. [PubMed]
  • Hruban JA. Selection of snack foods from vending machines by high school students. J Sch Health. 1977 Jan;47(1):33–37. [PubMed]
  • French SA, Jeffery RW, Story M, Hannan P, Snyder MP. A pricing strategy to promote low-fat snack choices through vending machines. Am J Public Health. 1997 May;87(5):849–851. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • French SA, Story M, Jeffery RW, Snyder P, Eisenberg M, Sidebottom A, Murray D. Pricing strategy to promote fruit and vegetable purchase in high school cafeterias. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997 Sep;97(9):1008–1010. [PubMed]
  • Jeffery RW, French SA, Raether C, Baxter JE. An environmental intervention to increase fruit and salad purchases in a cafeteria. Prev Med. 1994 Nov;23(6):788–792. [PubMed]
  • Devaney BL, Gordon AR, Burghardt JA. Dietary intakes of students. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jan;61(1 Suppl):205S–212S. [PubMed]
  • Truswell AS, Darnton-Hill I. Food habits of adolescents. Nutr Rev. 1981 Feb;39(2):73–88. [PubMed]
  • Glanz K, Lankenau B, Foerster S, Temple S, Mullis R, Schmid T. Environmental and policy approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention through nutrition: opportunities for state and local action. Health Educ Q. 1995 Nov;22(4):512–527. [PubMed]
  • French SA, Story M, Hannan P, Breitlow KK, Jeffery RW, Baxter JS, Snyder MP. Cognitive and demographic correlates of low-fat vending snack choices among adolescents and adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999 Apr;99(4):471–475. [PubMed]
  • Shepherd R, Stockley L. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and fat consumption. J Am Diet Assoc. 1987 May;87(5):615–619. [PubMed]

Articles from American Journal of Public Health are provided here courtesy of American Public Health Association

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...