• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of amjphAmerican Journal of Public Health Web SiteAmerican Public Health Association Web SiteSubmissionsSubscriptionsAbout Us
Am J Public Health. 2001 June; 91(6): 984–987.
PMCID: PMC1446480

Predictors of accidental fatal drug overdose among a cohort of injection drug users.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated factors associated with accidental fatal drug overdose among a cohort of injection drug users (IDUs). METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of 2849 IDUs in King County, Washington, deaths were identified by electronically merging subject identifiers with death certificate records. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of overdose mortality. RESULTS: Thirty-two overdoses were observed. Independent predictors of overdose mortality were bisexual sexual orientation (relative risk [RR] = 4.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.30, 13.2), homelessness (RR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.06, 5.01), infrequent injection of speedballs (RR = 5.36; 95% CI = 1.58, 18.1), daily use of powdered cocaine (RR = 4.84; 95% CI = 1.13, 20.8), and daily use of poppers (RR = 22.0; 95% CI = 1.74, 278). CONCLUSIONS: Sexual orientation, homelessness, and drug use identify IDUs who may benefit from targeted interventions.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (70K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Vaillant GE. A 20-year follow-up of New York narcotic addicts. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1973 Aug;29(2):237–241. [PubMed]
  • Haastrup S, Jepsen PW. Eleven year follow-up of 300 young opioid addicts. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1988 Jan;77(1):22–26. [PubMed]
  • Oppenheimer E, Tobutt C, Taylor C, Andrew T. Death and survival in a cohort of heroin addicts from London clinics: a 22-year follow-up study. Addiction. 1994 Oct;89(10):1299–1308. [PubMed]
  • Darke S, Zador D. Fatal heroin 'overdose': a review. Addiction. 1996 Dec;91(12):1765–1772. [PubMed]
  • Perucci CA, Davoli M, Rapiti E, Abeni DD, Forastiere F. Mortality of intravenous drug users in Rome: a cohort study. Am J Public Health. 1991 Oct;81(10):1307–1310. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eskild A, Magnus P, Samuelsen SO, Sohlberg C, Kittelsen P. Differences in mortality rates and causes of death between HIV positive and HIV negative intravenous drug users. Int J Epidemiol. 1993 Apr;22(2):315–320. [PubMed]
  • Frischer M, Bloor M, Goldberg D, Clark J, Green S, McKeganey N. Mortality among injecting drug users: a critical reappraisal. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1993 Feb;47(1):59–63. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van Haastrecht HJ, van Ameijden EJ, van den Hoek JA, Mientjes GH, Bax JS, Coutinho RA. Predictors of mortality in the Amsterdam cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative drug users. Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Feb 15;143(4):380–391. [PubMed]
  • Ruttenber AJ, Luke JL. Heroin-related deaths: new epidemiologic insights. Science. 1984 Oct 5;226(4670):14–20. [PubMed]
  • Grönbladh L, Ohlund LS, Gunne LM. Mortality in heroin addiction: impact of methadone treatment. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1990 Sep;82(3):223–227. [PubMed]
  • Caplehorn JR, Dalton MS, Haldar F, Petrenas AM, Nisbet JG. Methadone maintenance and addicts' risk of fatal heroin overdose. Subst Use Misuse. 1996 Jan;31(2):177–196. [PubMed]
  • Hagan H, McGough JP, Thiede H, Weiss NS, Hopkins S, Alexander ER. Syringe exchange and risk of infection with hepatitis B and C viruses. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Feb 1;149(3):203–213. [PubMed]
  • Seaman SR, Brettle RP, Gore SM. Mortality from overdose among injecting drug users recently released from prison: database linkage study. BMJ. 1998 Feb 7;316(7129):426–428. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Paul JP. The bisexual identity: an idea without social recognition. J Homosex. 1983;9(2-3):45–63. [PubMed]

Articles from American Journal of Public Health are provided here courtesy of American Public Health Association

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...