Logo of amjphAmerican Journal of Public Health Web SiteAmerican Public Health Association Web SiteSubmissionsSubscriptionsAbout Us
Am J Public Health. 2000 August; 90(8): 1269–1276.
PMCID: PMC1446351

Agricultural work-related injuries among farmers in Hubei, People's Republic of China.


OBJECTIVES: This population-based study evaluated patterns of and risk factors for, agricultural injuries among farmers in the People's Republic of China. METHODS: A multistage sample of 1500 Chinese farmers was selected from 14 villages. Face-to-face interviews with 1358 farmers were conducted between July 1997 and September 1997 (response rate = 91%). Agricultural work-related injuries that occurred in the previous 24 months and the associated factors were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 33% of the farmers reported at least 1 work-related injury in the 24 months before the survey. Major external causes of the injuries were hand tools (50%), falls (26%), and heavy falling objects (10%). The statistically significant risk factors for injury were low family income, 1 to 6 school years of education, self-reported pesticide exposure, tension in relationships with neighbors, and stress in life. The most notable result was the relation between self-reported pesticide exposure and injury, with farmers with greater pesticide exposure at significantly greater risk for injury. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that injuries occurring among Chinese farmers may have unique patterns and potential risk factors.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (102K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Zwi AB, Forjuoh S, Murugusampillay S, Odero W, Watts C. Injuries in developing countries: policy response needed now. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1996 Nov-Dec;90(6):593–595. [PubMed]
  • Zhou C, Roseman JM. Agricultural injuries among a population-based sample of farm operators in Alabama. Am J Ind Med. 1994 Mar;25(3):385–402. [PubMed]
  • Browning SR, Truszczynska H, Reed D, McKnight RH. Agricultural injuries among older Kentucky farmers: The Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Study. Am J Ind Med. 1998 Apr;33(4):341–353. [PubMed]
  • Crawford JM, Wilkins JR, 3rd, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger ML, Bean TL, Jones LA. A cross-sectional case control study of work-related injuries among Ohio farmers. Am J Ind Med. 1998 Dec;34(6):588–599. [PubMed]
  • Lewis MQ, Sprince NL, Burmeister LF, Whitten PS, Torner JC, Zwerling C. Work-related injuries among Iowa farm operators: an analysis of the Iowa Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project. Am J Ind Med. 1998 May;33(5):510–517. [PubMed]
  • Xiang H, Stallones L, Chiu Y. Nonfatal agricultural injuries among Colorado older male farmers. J Aging Health. 1999 Feb;11(1):65–78. [PubMed]
  • Xiang H, Stallones L, Keefe TJ. Back pain and agricultural work among farmers: an analysis of the Colorado Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Survey. Am J Ind Med. 1999 Mar;35(3):310–316. [PubMed]
  • Stallones L. Surveillance of fatal and non-fatal farm injuries in Kentucky. Am J Ind Med. 1990;18(2):223–234. [PubMed]
  • Pratt DS, Marvel LH, Darrow D, Stallones L, May JJ, Jenkins P. The dangers of dairy farming: the injury experience of 600 workers followed for two years. Am J Ind Med. 1992;21(5):637–650. [PubMed]
  • May JJ. Issues in agricultural health and safety. Am J Ind Med. 1990;18(2):121–131. [PubMed]
  • Johnston JJ. Occupational injury and stress. J Occup Environ Med. 1995 Oct;37(10):1199–1203. [PubMed]
  • Li GH, Baker SP. A comparison of injury death rates in China and the United States, 1986. Am J Public Health. 1991 May;81(5):605–609. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Li G, Baker SP. Injuries to bicyclists in Wuhan, People's Republic of China. Am J Public Health. 1997 Jun;87(6):1049–1052. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wu SI, Malison MD. Motor vehicle injuries in Taiwan. Asia Pac J Public Health. 1990;4(1):72–75. [PubMed]
  • MacKinney T, Baker T. Impact of motor vehicle injury in Taiwan using potential productive years of life lost. Asia Pac J Public Health. 1994;7(1):10–15. [PubMed]
  • He F. Occupational medicine in China. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1998 Mar;71(2):79–84. [PubMed]
  • Sidel VW. New lessons from China: equity and economics in rural health care. Am J Public Health. 1993 Dec;83(12):1665–1666. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gu XY, Tang SL, Cao SH. The financing and organization of health services in poor rural China: a case study in Donglan County. Int J Health Plann Manage. 1995 Oct-Dec;10(4):265–282. [PubMed]
  • Levenson H, Hirschfeld ML, Hirschfeld A, Dzubay B. Recent life events and accidents: the role of sex differences. J Human Stress. 1983 Mar;9(1):4–11. [PubMed]
  • Rosenstock L, Daniell W, Barnhart S, Schwartz D, Demers PA. Chronic neuropsychological sequelae of occupational exposure to organophosphate insecticides. Am J Ind Med. 1990;18(3):321–325. [PubMed]
  • Savage EP, Keefe TJ, Mounce LM, Heaton RK, Lewis JA, Burcar PJ. Chronic neurological sequelae of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. Arch Environ Health. 1988 Jan-Feb;43(1):38–45. [PubMed]
  • Rosenstock L, Keifer M, Daniell WE, McConnell R, Claypoole K. Chronic central nervous system effects of acute organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The Pesticide Health Effects Study Group. Lancet. 1991 Jul 27;338(8761):223–227. [PubMed]
  • Cumming RG, Kelsey JL, Nevitt MC. Methodologic issues in the study of frequent and recurrent health problems. Falls in the elderly. Ann Epidemiol. 1990 Oct;1(1):49–56. [PubMed]
  • Lemeshow S, Letenneur L, Dartigues JF, Lafont S, Orgogozo JM, Commenges D. Illustration of analysis taking into account complex survey considerations: the association between wine consumption and dementia in the PAQUID study. Personnes Ages Quid. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Aug 1;148(3):298–306. [PubMed]
  • Neuhaus JM, Segal MR. Design effects for binary regression models fitted to dependent data. Stat Med. 1993 Jul 15;12(13):1259–1268. [PubMed]
  • Forjuoh SN, Mock CN. Getting together for injury control. World Health Forum. 1998;19(1):39–41. [PubMed]

Articles from American Journal of Public Health are provided here courtesy of American Public Health Association


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...