• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of amjphAmerican Journal of Public Health Web SiteAmerican Public Health Association Web SiteSubmissionsSubscriptionsAbout Us
Am J Public Health. 2000 March; 90(3): 360–366.
PMCID: PMC1446176

The dynamics of alcohol and marijuana initiation: patterns and predictors of first use in adolescence.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study, guided by the social development model, examined the dynamic patterns and predictors of alcohol and marijuana use onset. METHODS: Survival analysis and complementary log-log regression were used to model hazard rates and etiology of initiation with time-varying covariates. The sample was derived from a longitudinal study of 808 youth interviewed annually from 10 to 16 years of age and at 18 years of age. RESULTS: Alcohol initiation rose steeply up to the age of 13 years and then increased more gradually; most participants had initiated by 13 years of age. Marijuana initiation showed a different pattern, with more participants initiating after the age of 13 years. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that: (1) the risk of initiation spans the entire course of adolescent development; (2) young people exposed to others who use substances are at higher risk for early initiation; (3) proactive parents can help delay initiation; and (4) clear family standards and proactive family management are important in delaying alcohol and marijuana use, regardless of how closely bonded a child is to his or her mother.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (113K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Gruber E, DiClemente RJ, Anderson MM, Lodico M. Early drinking onset and its association with alcohol use and problem behavior in late adolescence. Prev Med. 1996 May-Jun;25(3):293–300. [PubMed]
  • Kandel DB, Logan JA. Patterns of drug use from adolescence to young adulthood: I. Periods of risk for initiation, continued use, and discontinuation. Am J Public Health. 1984 Jul;74(7):660–666. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Newcomb MD, Bentler PM. Drug use, educational aspirations, and work force involvement: the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Am J Community Psychol. 1986 Jun;14(3):303–321. [PubMed]
  • Okwumabua JO, Duryea EJ. Age of onset, periods of risk, and patterns of progression in drug use among American Indian high school students. Int J Addict. 1987 Dec;22(12):1269–1276. [PubMed]
  • Chou SP, Pickering RP. Early onset of drinking as a risk factor for lifetime alcohol-related problems. Br J Addict. 1992 Aug;87(8):1199–1204. [PubMed]
  • Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Miller JY. Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychol Bull. 1992 Jul;112(1):64–105. [PubMed]
  • Kandel D, Yamaguchi K. From beer to crack: developmental patterns of drug involvement. Am J Public Health. 1993 Jun;83(6):851–855. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yu J, Williford WR. The age of alcohol onset and alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use patterns: an analysis of drug use progression of young adults in New York State. Int J Addict. 1992 Nov;27(11):1313–1323. [PubMed]
  • Ellickson PL, Hays RD, Bell RM. Stepping through the drug use sequence: longitudinal scalogram analysis of initiation and regular use. J Abnorm Psychol. 1992 Aug;101(3):441–451. [PubMed]
  • Gonzalez GM. Early onset of drinking as a predictor of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in college. J Drug Educ. 1989;19(3):225–230. [PubMed]
  • Hawkins JD, Graham JW, Maguin E, Abbott R, Hill KG, Catalano RF. Exploring the effects of age of alcohol use initiation and psychosocial risk factors on subsequent alcohol misuse. J Stud Alcohol. 1997 May;58(3):280–290. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kandel DB, Yamaguchi K, Chen K. Stages of progression in drug involvement from adolescence to adulthood: further evidence for the gateway theory. J Stud Alcohol. 1992 Sep;53(5):447–457. [PubMed]
  • Golub A, Johnson BD. The shifting importance of alcohol and marijuana as gateway substances among serious drug abusers. J Stud Alcohol. 1994 Sep;55(5):607–614. [PubMed]
  • O'Donnell JA, Clayton RR. The stepping-stone hypothesis--marijuana, heroin, and causality. Chem Depend. 1982;4(3):229–241. [PubMed]
  • Thomas BS. A path analysis of gender differences in adolescent onset of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use (ATOD), reported ATOD use and adverse consequences of ATOD use. J Addict Dis. 1996;15(1):33–52. [PubMed]
  • Wells EA, Morrison DM, Gillmore MR, Catalano RF, Iritani B, Hawkins JD. Race differences in antisocial behaviors and attitudes and early initiation of substance use. J Drug Educ. 1992;22(2):115–130. [PubMed]
  • Chilcoat HD, Anthony JC. Impact of parent monitoring on initiation of drug use through late childhood. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1996 Jan;35(1):91–100. [PubMed]
  • Bailey SL, Hubbard RL. Developmental variation in the context of marijuana initiation among adolescents. J Health Soc Behav. 1990 Mar;31(1):58–70. [PubMed]
  • Brook JS, Lukoff IF, Whiteman M. Initiation into adolescent marijuana use. J Genet Psychol. 1980 Sep;137(1ST):133–142. [PubMed]
  • Gillmore MR, Catalano RF, Morrison DM, Wells EA, Iritani B, Hawkins JD. Racial differences in acceptability and availability of drugs and early initiation of substance use. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1990;16(3-4):185–206. [PubMed]
  • Catalano Richard F, Kosterman Rick, Hawkins J David, Newcomb Michael D, Abbott Robert D. Modeling the Etiology of Adolescent Substance Use: A Test of the Social Development Model. J Drug Issues. 1996;26(2):429–455. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ellickson PL, Bell RM. Drug prevention in junior high: a multi-site longitudinal test. Science. 1990 Mar 16;247(4948):1299–1305. [PubMed]
  • Abbott RD, O'Donnell J, Hawkins JD, Hill KG, Kosterman R, Catalano RF. Changing teaching practices to promote achievement and bonding to school. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1998 Oct;68(4):542–552. [PubMed]
  • Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Kosterman R, Abbott R, Hill KG. Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999 Mar;153(3):226–234. [PubMed]

Articles from American Journal of Public Health are provided here courtesy of American Public Health Association

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...