• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of amjphAmerican Journal of Public Health Web SiteAmerican Public Health Association Web SiteSubmissionsSubscriptionsAbout Us
Am J Public Health. 2000 March; 90(3): 372–379.
PMCID: PMC1446161

Trends in adult cigarette smoking in California compared with the rest of the United States, 1978-1994.


OBJECTIVES: This study compared trends in adult cigarette smoking prevalence in California and the remainder of the United States between 1978 and 1994. METHODS: We used data from National Health Interview Surveys and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys to compare trends in smoking prevalence among persons 18 years and older. RESULTS: In both California and the remainder of the United States, the estimated annual rate of decline in adult smoking prevalence accelerated significantly from 1985 to 1990: to -1.22 percentage points per year (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.51, -0.93) in California and to -0.93 percentage points per year (95% CI = -1.13, -0.73) in the remainder of the nation. The rate of decline slowed significantly from 1990 to 1994: to -0.39 percentage points per year (95% CI = -0.76, -0.03) in California and to -0.05 percentage points per year (95% CI = -0.34, 0.24) in the remainder of the United States. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of an aggressive tobacco control intervention has supported a significant decline in adult smoking prevalence in California from 1985 to 1990 and a slower but still significant decline from 1990 to 1994, a period in which there was no significant decline in the remainder of the nation. To restore nationwide progress in reducing smoking prevalence, other states should consider similar interventions.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (120K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Giovino GA, Schooley MW, Zhu BP, Chrismon JH, Tomar SL, Peddicord JP, Merritt RK, Husten CG, Eriksen MP. Surveillance for selected tobacco-use behaviors--United States, 1900-1994. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 1994 Nov 18;43(3):1–43. [PubMed]
  • Novotny TE, Siegel MB. California's tobacco control saga. Health Aff (Millwood) 1996 Spring;15(1):58–72. [PubMed]
  • Gilpin EA, Pierce JP, Cavin SW, Berry CC, Evans NJ, Johnson M, Bal DG. Estimates of population smoking prevalence: self-vs proxy reports of smoking status. Am J Public Health. 1994 Oct;84(10):1576–1579. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Breslow L, Johnson M. California's Proposition 99 on tobacco, and its impact. Annu Rev Public Health. 1993;14:585–604. [PubMed]
  • Flewelling RL, Kenney E, Elder JP, Pierce J, Johnson M, Bal DG. First-year impact of the 1989 California cigarette tax increase on cigarette consumption. Am J Public Health. 1992 Jun;82(6):867–869. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Keeler TE, Hu TW, Barnett PG, Manning WG. Taxation, regulation, and addiction: a demand function for cigarettes based on time-series evidence. J Health Econ. 1993 Apr;12(1):1–18. [PubMed]
  • Hu TW, Bai J, Keeler TE, Barnett PG, Sung HY. The impact of California Proposition 99, a major anti-smoking law, on cigarette consumption. J Public Health Policy. 1994 Spring;15(1):26–36. [PubMed]
  • Hu TW, Sung HY, Keeler TE. Reducing cigarette consumption in California: tobacco taxes vs an anti-smoking media campaign. Am J Public Health. 1995 Sep;85(9):1218–1222. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hu TW, Sung HY, Keeler TE. The state antismoking campaign and the industry response: the effects of advertising on cigarette consumption in California. Am Econ Rev. 1995 May;85(2):85–90. [PubMed]
  • Elder JP, Edwards CC, Conway TL, Kenney E, Johnson CA, Bennett ED. Independent evaluation of the California Tobacco Education Program. Public Health Rep. 1996 Jul-Aug;111(4):353–358. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pierce JP, Gilpin EA, Emery SL, White MM, Rosbrook B, Berry CC, Farkas AJ. Has the California tobacco control program reduced smoking? JAMA. 1998 Sep 9;280(10):893–899. [PubMed]
  • Nelson DE, Giovino GA, Shopland DR, Mowery PD, Mills SL, Eriksen MP. Trends in cigarette smoking among US adolescents, 1974 through 1991. Am J Public Health. 1995 Jan;85(1):34–40. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cavin SW, Pierce JP. Low-cost cigarettes and smoking behavior in California, 1990-1993. Am J Prev Med. 1996 Jan-Feb;12(1):17–21. [PubMed]
  • Begay ME, Traynor M, Glantz SA. The tobacco industry, state politics, and tobacco education in California. Am J Public Health. 1993 Sep;83(9):1214–1221. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sherman R. Shaming big tobacco's friends in California. Tob Control. 1996 Autumn;5(3):189–191. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Skolnick AA. Antitobacco advocates fight 'illegal' diversion of tobacco control money. JAMA. 1994 May 11;271(18):1387–1390. [PubMed]
  • Skolnick AA. Judge rules diversion of antismoking money illegal, victory for California Tobacco Control Program. JAMA. 1995 Feb 22;273(8):610–611. [PubMed]
  • Shiffman S, Gitchell J, Pinney JM, Burton SL, Kemper KE, Lara EA. Public health benefit of over-the-counter nicotine medications. Tob Control. 1997 Winter;6(4):306–310. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from American Journal of Public Health are provided here courtesy of American Public Health Association


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...