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Plant Cell. 1999 Dec; 11(12): 2393–2405.
PMCID: PMC144142

Novel protein kinases associated with calcineurin B-like calcium sensors in Arabidopsis.


Members of the Arabidopsis calcineurin B-like Ca(2)+ binding protein (AtCBL) family are differentially regulated by stress conditions. One AtCBL plays a role in salt stress; another is implicated in response to other stress signals, including drought, cold, and wounding. In this study, we identified a group of novel protein kinases specifically associated with AtCBL-type Ca(2)+ sensors. In addition to a typical protein kinase domain, they all contain a unique C-terminal region that is both required and sufficient for interaction with the AtCBL-type but not calmodulin-type Ca(2)+ binding proteins from plants. Interactions between the kinases and AtCBLs require micromolar concentrations of Ca(2)+, suggesting that increases in cellular Ca(2)+ concentrations may trigger the formation of AtCBL-kinase complexes in vivo. Unlike most serine/threonine kinases, the AtCBL-interacting kinase efficiently uses Mn(2)+ to Mg(2)+ as a cofactor and may function as a Mn(2)+ binding protein in the cell. These findings link a new type of Ca(2)+ sensors to a group of novel protein kinases, providing the molecular basis for a unique Ca(2)+ signaling machinery in plant cells.

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Selected References

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