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Am J Public Health. 1990 March; 80(3): 331–333.
PMCID: PMC1404686

Recurring urinary tract infection: incidence and risk factors.


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection among young women, with a high recurrence rate. This study documents the six-month incidence of second UTI among a cohort of women with one initial UTI and the factors associated with recurrence. Among the cohort of 113 women, 30 (26.6 percent) experienced at least one culture-confirmed recurrence within the six months following initial infection. The presence of hematuria and urgency as symptoms of initial infection were the strongest predictors of second infection. Behavioral factors associated with initial infection (frequency of sexual intercourse, diaphragm use, and voiding after sexual intercourse) did not distinguish between women who would and would not experience a second UTI during the six-month follow-up period.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Kunin CM, Polyak F, Postel E. Periurethral bacterial flora in women. Prolonged intermittent colonization with Escherichia coli. JAMA. 1980 Jan 11;243(2):134–139. [PubMed]
  • Foxman B, Frerichs RR. Epidemiology of urinary tract infection: I. Diaphragm use and sexual intercourse. Am J Public Health. 1985 Nov;75(11):1308–1313. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Remis RS, Gurwith MJ, Gurwith D, Hargrett-Bean NT, Layde PM. Risk factors for urinary tract infection. Am J Epidemiol. 1987 Oct;126(4):685–694. [PubMed]
  • Strom BL, Collins M, West SL, Kreisberg J, Weller S. Sexual activity, contraceptive use, and other risk factors for symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria. A case-control study. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Dec;107(6):816–823. [PubMed]
  • Fihn SD, Latham RH, Roberts P, Running K, Stamm WE. Association between diaphragm use and urinary tract infection. JAMA. 1985 Jul 12;254(2):240–245. [PubMed]

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