• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of gutGutCurrent TOCInstructions to authors
Gut. Aug 1996; 39(2): 234–241.
PMCID: PMC1383305

Effects of dextran sulphate sodium on intestinal epithelial cells and intestinal lymphocytes.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) on mouse intestinal epithelial cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes were analysed to investigate the mechanism by which DSS induces colitis and tumours in mice. Cytotoxicity of DSS towards intestinal epithelial cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte hybridomas or fresh intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes seems to have concentration, time, and cell type dependency with increasing concentrations and time causing increased cytotoxicity. RESULTS: Integrin alpha 4 expression was marginally down regulated by 0.5% of DSS, while alpha M290 expression was up regulated. DSS inhibits the binding of 9.1 gamma delta cells to both extracellular matrix (ECM) and epithelial cells. Conversely at high concentrations it increases binding to all ECM except poly-L-lysine. Various cytokines including TGF beta, interleukin 2, and tumour necrosis factor alpha as well as prostaglandin alter the expression of the integrin alpha 4 and M290 subunits at the cell surface, and also alter the adhesion of 9.1 gamma delta cells to epithelial monolayers. The expression of a large number of cell adhesion molecules expressed on intraepithelial lymphocytes is affected by a combination of the abundant gut cytokine TGF beta and DSS, suggesting that DSS induced colitis may ultimately arise from a combination of gut cytokine and DSS. DSS also triggers intraepithelial lymphocyte aggregation on all ECM coated plate tested. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the potential roles of DSS induced colitis may be: (a) direct cytotoxicity; (b) interference with the normal interaction between intestinal lymphocytes, epithelial cells, and ECMs; (c) aberrant modulation of the expression of the integrin beta 7 receptors, other cell receptors, and their functions.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Deusch K, Pfeffer K, Reich K, Gstettenbauer M, Daum S, Lüling F, Classen M. Phenotypic and functional characterization of human TCR gamma delta+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1991;173:279–283. [PubMed]
  • Jiang WM, Jenkins D, Yuan Q, Leung E, Choo KH, Watson JD, Krissansen GW. The gene organization of the human beta 7 subunit, the common beta subunit of the leukocyte integrins HML-1 and LPAM-1. Int Immunol. 1992 Sep;4(9):1031–1040. [PubMed]
  • Chan BM, Elices MJ, Murphy E, Hemler ME. Adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and fibronectin. Comparison of alpha 4 beta 1 (VLA-4) and alpha 4 beta 7 on the human B cell line JY. J Biol Chem. 1992 Apr 25;267(12):8366–8370. [PubMed]
  • Parker CM, Cepek KL, Russell GJ, Shaw SK, Posnett DN, Schwarting R, Brenner MB. A family of beta 7 integrins on human mucosal lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1924–1928. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kilshaw PJ, Murant SJ. Expression and regulation of beta 7(beta p) integrins on mouse lymphocytes: relevance to the mucosal immune system. Eur J Immunol. 1991 Oct;21(10):2591–2597. [PubMed]
  • Holzmann B, McIntyre BW, Weissman IL. Identification of a murine Peyer's patch--specific lymphocyte homing receptor as an integrin molecule with an alpha chain homologous to human VLA-4 alpha. Cell. 1989 Jan 13;56(1):37–46. [PubMed]
  • Schieferdecker HL, Ullrich R, Weiss-Breckwoldt AN, Schwarting R, Stein H, Riecken EO, Zeitz M. The HML-1 antigen of intestinal lymphocytes is an activation antigen. J Immunol. 1990 Apr 1;144(7):2541–2549. [PubMed]
  • Schieferdecker HL, Ullrich R, Zeitz M. Phenotype of HML-1-positive T cells in the human intestinal lamina propria. Immunol Res. 1991;10(3-4):207–210. [PubMed]
  • Schwarting R, Dienemann D, Kruschwitz M, Fritsche G, Stein H. Specificities of monoclonal antibodies B-ly7 and HML-1 are identical. Blood. 1990 Jan 1;75(1):320–321. [PubMed]
  • Cepek KL, Shaw SK, Parker CM, Russell GJ, Morrow JS, Rimm DL, Brenner MB. Adhesion between epithelial cells and T lymphocytes mediated by E-cadherin and the alpha E beta 7 integrin. Nature. 1994 Nov 10;372(6502):190–193. [PubMed]
  • Tamaru T, Kobayashi H, Kishimoto S, Kajiyama G, Shimamoto F, Brown WR. Histochemical study of colonic cancer in experimental colitis of rats. Dig Dis Sci. 1993 Mar;38(3):529–537. [PubMed]
  • Dörries R, Schimpl A, Wecker E. Action of dextran sulfate as a direct and general B cell mitogen. Eur J Immunol. 1974 Mar;4(3):230–233. [PubMed]
  • Minchin SA, Leitenberg D, Stunz LL, Feldbush TL. Polyclonal activation of rat B cells. II. Dextran sulfate as a cofactor in mitogen-induced and antigen-induced differentiation of rat B lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1990 Oct 15;145(8):2427–2433. [PubMed]
  • Warren HS, Parish CR. Mapping the dextran sulfate binding site on CD2. Immunol Cell Biol. 1990 Jun;68(Pt 3):199–205. [PubMed]
  • Hocking D, Ferro TJ, Johnson A. Dextran sulfate and heparin sulfate inhibit platelet-activating factor-induced pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1992 Jan;72(1):179–185. [PubMed]
  • Skinner MP, Lucas CM, Burns GF, Chesterman CN, Berndt MC. GMP-140 binding to neutrophils is inhibited by sulfated glycans. J Biol Chem. 1991 Mar 25;266(9):5371–5374. [PubMed]
  • Handa K, Nudelman ED, Stroud MR, Shiozawa T, Hakomori S. Selectin GMP-140 (CD62; PADGEM) binds to sialosyl-Le(a) and sialosyl-Le(x), and sulfated glycans modulate this binding. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Dec 31;181(3):1223–1230. [PubMed]
  • Ruoslahti E, Pekkala A, Engvall E. Effect of dextran sulfate on fibronectin-collagen interaction. FEBS Lett. 1979 Nov 1;107(1):51–54. [PubMed]
  • Ni J, Hollander D. Expression of beta 7 integrins and other cell adhesion molecules on mouse lymphocytes and their modulation by a new cytokine, IL-2 receptor-inducing factor. Cell Immunol. 1995 Aug;164(1):150–155. [PubMed]
  • Ni J, Porter AG, Hollander D. Beta 7 integrins and other cell adhesion molecules are differentially expressed and modulated by TNF beta in different lymphocyte populations. Cell Immunol. 1995 Apr 1;161(2):166–172. [PubMed]
  • Ni J, Hollander D, Sydora B, Panwala C. Adhesion molecule expression and adhesion properties of murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte hybridomas. Cell Immunol. 1995 Aug;164(1):156–160. [PubMed]
  • Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods. 1983 Dec 16;65(1-2):55–63. [PubMed]
  • Ni J, Meager A, Karpas A. Characterization and partial purification of a novel cytotoxic lymphokine (factor 2) produced by a human B cell line (Karpas 160). Int Immunol. 1992 Apr;4(4):519–531. [PubMed]
  • Rüegg C, Postigo AA, Sikorski EE, Butcher EC, Pytela R, Erle DJ. Role of integrin alpha 4 beta 7/alpha 4 beta P in lymphocyte adherence to fibronectin and VCAM-1 and in homotypic cell clustering. J Cell Biol. 1992 Apr;117(1):179–189. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Screaton GR, Bell MV, Bell JI, Jackson DG. The identification of a new alternative exon with highly restricted tissue expression in transcripts encoding the mouse Pgp-1 (CD44) homing receptor. Comparison of all 10 variable exons between mouse, human, and rat. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jun 15;268(17):12235–12238. [PubMed]
  • Pilarski LM, Yacyshyn BR, Jensen GS, Pruski E, Pabst HF. Beta 1 integrin (CD29) expression on human postnatal T cell subsets defined by selective CD45 isoform expression. J Immunol. 1991 Aug 1;147(3):830–837. [PubMed]

Articles from Gut are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...