• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of amjphAmerican Journal of Public Health Web SiteAmerican Public Health Association Web SiteSubmissionsSubscriptionsAbout Us
Am J Public Health. 1996 December; 86(12): 1755–1759.
PMCID: PMC1380729

Healthy behaviors among women in the United States and Ontario: the effect on use of preventive care.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study examined how several healthy behaviors among women in Ontario and the United States explained (1) the use of preventive health services, (2) differences in use between socioeconomic groups, and (3) differences in use between the two health systems. METHODS: 1990 data on women from the Ontario Health Survey (n = 22,985) and the US National Health Interview Survey (n = 19,092) were analyzed. A woman who avoided smoking and obesity, used seatbelts, and regularly engaged in aerobic exercise was defined as having a healthy lifestyle. Women were considered screened if they reported a mammogram or a breast exam within the previous year or a Pap smear within 2 years. RESULTS: A healthy lifestyle was more common in the United States than Canada among more highly educated groups (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 1.60 for college educated) but less common in the United States for those with less than a high school education (OR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.40, 0.67). Each additional unhealthy behavior decreased the odds of having undergone a mammogram in the previous year by 20%. However, adjusting for the number of unhealthy behaviors did not substantially change the relationship between socioeconomic status and use of preventive services. CONCLUSIONS: The number of healthy behaviors is an important measure of demand for preventive health services. This measure varies across country and socioeconomic group.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Katz SJ, Hofer TP. Socioeconomic disparities in preventive care persist despite universal coverage. Breast and cervical cancer screening in Ontario and the United States. JAMA. 1994 Aug 17;272(7):530–534. [PubMed]
  • Epstein FH. The relationship of lifestyle to international trends in CHD. Int J Epidemiol. 1989;18(3 Suppl 1):S203–S209. [PubMed]
  • Millar WJ, Stephens T. Social status and health risks in Canadian adults: 1985 and 1991. Health Rep. 1993;5(2):143–156. [PubMed]
  • Retchin SM, Wells JA, Valleron AJ, Albrecht GL. Health behavior changes in the United States, the United Kingdom, and France. J Gen Intern Med. 1992 Nov-Dec;7(6):615–622. [PubMed]
  • Steptoe A, Wardle J. Cognitive predictors of health behaviour in contrasting regions of Europe. Br J Clin Psychol. 1992 Nov;31(Pt 4):485–502. [PubMed]
  • Millar W. A trend to a healthier lifestyle. Health Rep. 1991;3(4):363–370. [PubMed]
  • Liberatos P, Link BG, Kelsey JL. The measurement of social class in epidemiology. Epidemiol Rev. 1988;10:87–121. [PubMed]
  • Marmot MG, Smith GD, Stansfeld S, Patel C, North F, Head J, White I, Brunner E, Feeney A. Health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study. Lancet. 1991 Jun 8;337(8754):1387–1393. [PubMed]
  • Abel T. Measuring health lifestyles in a comparative analysis: theoretical issues and empirical findings. Soc Sci Med. 1991;32(8):899–908. [PubMed]
  • Sobal J, Revicki D, DeForge BR. Patterns of interrelations among health-promotion behaviors. Am J Prev Med. 1992 Nov-Dec;8(6):351–359. [PubMed]
  • Cockerham WC, Kunz G, Lueschen G. Social stratification and health lifestyles in two systems of health care delivery: a comparison of the United States and West Germany. J Health Soc Behav. 1988 Jun;29(2):113–126. [PubMed]
  • Breslow L, Breslow N. Health practices and disability: some evidence from Alameda County. Prev Med. 1993 Jan;22(1):86–95. [PubMed]
  • Norman SA, Talbott EO, Kuller LH, Krampe BR, Stolley PD. Demographic, psychosocial, and medical correlates of Pap testing: a literature review. Am J Prev Med. 1991 Jul-Aug;7(4):219–226. [PubMed]
  • Rimer BK, Trock B, Engstrom PF, Lerman C, King E. Why do some women get regular mammograms? Am J Prev Med. 1991 Mar-Apr;7(2):69–74. [PubMed]
  • Rakowski W, Rimer BK, Bryant SA. Integrating behavior and intention regarding mammography by respondents in the 1990 National Health Interview Survey of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Public Health Rep. 1993 Sep-Oct;108(5):605–624. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schoenborn CA, Stephens T. Health promotion in the United States and Canada: smoking, exercise, and other health-related behaviors. Am J Public Health. 1988 Aug;78(8):983–984. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weinstein ND. Testing four competing theories of health-protective behavior. Health Psychol. 1993 Jul;12(4):324–333. [PubMed]
  • Aday LA, Andersen RM. The national profile of access to medical care: where do we stand? Am J Public Health. 1984 Dec;74(12):1331–1339. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coburn D, Pope CR. Socioeconomic status and preventive health behavior. J Health Soc Behav. 1974 Jun;15(2):67–78. [PubMed]

Articles from American Journal of Public Health are provided here courtesy of American Public Health Association

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...