• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of amjphAmerican Journal of Public Health Web SiteAmerican Public Health Association Web SiteSubmissionsSubscriptionsAbout Us
Am J Public Health. 1996 November; 86(11): 1545–1550.
PMCID: PMC1380687

Pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza vaccination: access to and use by US Hispanic Medicare beneficiaries.


OBJECTIVES: This study examined differences between elderly Hispanic Medicare beneficiaries and other Medicare beneficiaries in the probability of being immunized for pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza. METHODS: We used the 1992 national Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey to evaluate influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia immunization rates. RESULTS: Elderly Hispanic Medicare beneficiaries were less likely than non-Hispanic White Medicare beneficiaries to have received an influenza vaccine in the past year or to have ever been immunized for pneumococcal pneumonia. Speaking Spanish was statistically significantly associated with influenza vaccination but not with pneumococcal pneumonia vaccination. Supplemental insurance status, HMO enrollment, having a usual source of care, and being satisfied with access to care were positively associated with immunization. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies that may improve immunization rates among elderly. Hispanics include reducing the inconvenience of being immunized, decreasing out-of-pocket costs, linking beneficiaries with providers, and educating Hispanic beneficiaries in Spanish about the benefits of vaccinations.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Aday LA, Andersen R. A framework for the study of access to medical care. Health Serv Res. 1974 Fall;9(3):208–220. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Solis JM, Marks G, Garcia M, Shelton D. Acculturation, access to care, and use of preventive services by Hispanics: findings from HHANES 1982-84. Am J Public Health. 1990 Dec;80 (Suppl):11–19. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fox SA, Roetzheim RG. Screening mammography and older Hispanic women. Current status and issues. Cancer. 1994 Oct 1;74(7 Suppl):2028–2033. [PubMed]
  • Andersen R, Lewis SZ, Giachello AL, Aday LA, Chiu G. Access to medical care among the Hispanic population of the southwestern United States. J Health Soc Behav. 1981 Mar;22(1):78–89. [PubMed]
  • Richardson JL, Marks G, Solis JM, Collins LM, Birba L, Hisserich JC. Frequency and adequacy of breast cancer screening among elderly Hispanic women. Prev Med. 1987 Nov;16(6):761–774. [PubMed]
  • Markides KS, Levin JS, Ray LA. Determinants of physician utilization among Mexican-Americans. A three-generations study. Med Care. 1985 Mar;23(3):236–246. [PubMed]
  • Hu DJ, Covell RM. Health care usage by Hispanic outpatients as function of primary language. West J Med. 1986 Apr;144(4):490–493. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Estrada AL, Treviño FM, Ray LA. Health care utilization barriers among Mexican Americans: evidence from HHANES 1982-84. Am J Public Health. 1990 Dec;80 (Suppl):27–31. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ruiz MS, Marks G, Richardson JL. Language acculturation and screening practices of elderly Hispanic women. The role of exposure to health-related information from the media. J Aging Health. 1992 May;4(2):268–281. [PubMed]
  • Schur CL, Albers LA, Berk ML. Health care use by Hispanic adults: financial vs. non-financial determinants. Health Care Financ Rev. 1995 Winter;17(2):71–88. [PubMed]
  • Adler GS. A profile of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Health Care Financ Rev. 1994 Summer;15(4):153–163. [PubMed]
  • Pearson DC, Thompson RS. Evaluation of Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound's Senior Influenza Immunization Program. Public Health Rep. 1994 Jul-Aug;109(4):571–578. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schur CL, Bernstein AB, Berk ML. The importance of distinguishing Hispanic subpopulations in the use of medical care. Med Care. 1987 Jul;25(7):627–641. [PubMed]
  • Vega WA, Amaro H. Latino outlook: good health, uncertain prognosis. Annu Rev Public Health. 1994;15:39–67. [PubMed]
  • Long SH, Settle RF. Medicare and the disadvantaged elderly: objectives and outcomes. Milbank Mem Fund Q Health Soc. 1984 Fall;62(4):609–656. [PubMed]

Articles from American Journal of Public Health are provided here courtesy of American Public Health Association


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...