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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptNIH Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
PMC full text:
N Engl J Med. Author manuscript; available in PMC Feb 17, 2006.
Published in final edited form as:
N Engl J Med. Feb 7, 2002; 346(6): 393–403.
doi:  10.1056/NEJMoa012512

Table 2.

Incidence of Diabetes.

VariableNo. of Participants (%)IncidenceReduction in Incidence (95% CI)*
PLACEBOMETFORMINLIFESTYLELIFESTYLE VS. PLACEBOMETFORMIN VS. PLACEBOLIFESTYLE VS. METFORMIN
cases/100 person-yrpercent
Overall3234 (100)11.07.84.858 (48 to 66)31 (17 to 43)39 (24 to 51)
Age
 25-44 yr1000 (30.9)11.66.76.248 (27 to 63)44 (21 to 60)8 (-36 to 37)
 45-59 yr1586 (49.0)10.87.64.759 (44 to 70)31 (10 to 46)41 (18 to 57)
 ≥60 yr648 (20.0)10.89.63.171 (51 to 83)11 (-33 to 41)69 (47 to 82)
Sex
 Male1043 (32.3)12.58.14.665 (49 to 76)37 (14 to 54)46 (20 to 63)
 Female2191 (67.7)10.37.65.054 (40 to 64)28 (10 to 43)36 (16 to 51)
Race or ethnic group
 White1768 (54.7)10.37.85.251 (35 to 63)24 (3 to 41)36 (14 to 52)
 African American645 (19.9)12.47.15.161 (37 to 76)44 (16 to 63)29 (-18 to 58)
 Hispanic508 (15.7)11.78.44.266 (41 to 80)31 (-9 to 56)51 (13 to 72)
 American Indian171 (5.3)12.99.74.765 (7 to 87)25 (-72 to 68)52 (-35 to 83)
 Asian142 (4.4)12.17.53.871 (24 to 89)38 (-55 to 75)52 (-46 to 84)
Body-mass index§
 22 to <301045 (32.3)9.08.83.365 (46 to 77)3 (-36 to 30)63 (44 to 76)
 30 to <35995 (30.8)8.97.63.761 (40 to 75)16 (-19 to 41)53 (28 to 70)
 ≥351194 (36.9)14.37.07.351 (34 to 63)53 (36 to 65)-4 (-47 to 26)
Plasma glucose
 In the fasting state
  95-109 mg/dl||2174 (67.2)6.45.52.955 (38 to 68)15 (-12 to 36)48 (27 to 63)
  110-125 mg/dl**1060 (32.8)22.312.38.863 (51 to 72)48 (33 to 60)30 (6 to 48)
 Two hours after an oral load
  140-153 mg/dl1049 (32.4)7.14.31.876 (58 to 86)41 (11 to 61)59 (27 to 77)
  154-172 mg/dl1103 (34.1)10.36.64.460 (41 to 72)38 (13 to 56)34 (2 to 56)
  173-199 mg/dl1082 (33.5)16.112.38.550 (33 to 63)26 (3 to 43)33 (9 to 51)
*CI denotes confidence interval.
P<0.05 for the test of heterogeneity across strata. Age, body-mass index, and plasma glucose were analyzed as $$Word$$ variables.
This category includes 20 Pacific Islanders.
§The eligibility criterion was a body-mass index of at least 22 for Asians and at least 24 for all other persons.
To convert the values for glucose to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.05551.
||This category includes American Indian participants who had a fasting glucose concentration that was less than 95 mg per deciliter, according to the eligibility criteria.6
**This category includes 54 participants with a fasting glucose concentration of 126 to 139 mg per deciliter who were enrolled before June 1997,6 when the eligibility criteria were changed to conform to the diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association, published that year.11