• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptNIH Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
PMC full text:
N Engl J Med. Author manuscript; available in PMC Feb 17, 2006.
Published in final edited form as:
N Engl J Med. Feb 7, 2002; 346(6): 393–403.
doi:  10.1056/NEJMoa012512

Table 1.

Base-Line Characteristics of the Study Participants.*

CharacteristicOverall (N=3234)Placebo (N=1082)Metformin (N=1073)Lifestyle (N=1079)
Sex — no. (%)
 Male1043 (32.3)335 (31.0)363 (33.8)345 (32.0)
 Female2191 (67.7)747 (69.0)710 (66.2)734 (68.0)
Race or ethnic group — no. (%)
 White1768 (54.7)586 (54.2)602 (56.1)580 (53.8)
 African American645 (19.9)220 (20.3)221 (20.6)204 (18.9)
 Hispanic508 (15.7)168 (15.5)162 (15.1)178 (16.5)
 American Indian171 (5.3)59 (5.5)52 (4.8)60 (5.6)
 Asian142 (4.4)49 (4.5)36 (3.4)57 (5.3)
Family history of diabetes — no. (%)2243 (69.4)758 (70.1)733 (68.3)752 (69.8)
History of gestational diabetes — no. of women (%)353 (16.1)122 (16.3)111 (15.7)120 (16.3)
Age — yr50.6±10.750.3±10.450.9±10.350.6±11.3
Weight — kg94.2±20.394.3±20.294.3±19.994.1±20.8
Body-mass index34.0±6.734.2±6.733.9±6.633.9±6.8
Waist circumference — cm105.1±14.5105.2±14.3104.9±14.4105.1±14.8
Waist-to-hip ratio0.92±0.090.93±0.090.93±0.090.92±0.08
Plasma glucose — mg/dl§
 In the fasting state106.5±8.3106.7±8.4106.5±8.5106.3±8.1
 Two hours after an oral glucose load164.6±17.0164.5±17.1165.1±17.2164.4±16.8
Glycosylated hemoglobin — %5.91±0.505.91±0.505.91±0.505.91±0.51
Leisure physical activity — MET-hr/wk16.3±25.817.0±29.016.4±25.915.5±22.1
*Plus—minus values are means ±SD.
Twenty Pacific Islanders were included in this category.
Information was not available for one participant.
§To convert the values for glucose to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.05551.
Data are based on responses to the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire.16 MET denotes metabolic equivalent. MET-hours represent the average amount of time engaged in specified physical activities multiplied by the MET value of each activity.