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J Exp Anal Behav. Mar 1978; 29(2): 255–259.
PMCID: PMC1332753

A comparison of forward and backward procedures for the acquisition of response chains in humans


Ten university students each learned four separate six-link response chains, two forward and two backward. All 10 subjects made fewer errors in the forward procedure. It was concluded that the forward procedure is superior because each link of the response chain is acquired by direct reinforcement.

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  • Keehn JD. Is bar-holding with negative reinforcement preparatory or perseverative. J Exp Anal Behav. 1967 Sep;10(5):461–465. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

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