• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jathtrainLink to Publisher's site
J Athl Train. 1993 Fall; 28(3): 236, 238, 241-245.
PMCID: PMC1317720

The Effects Of Ice And Compression Wraps On Intramuscular Temperatures At Various Depths

Mark A. Merrick, MA, ATC
Mark A. Merrick is Athletic Trainer at Northeast Physical Therapy Centers, Brookfield, CT 06776.
Kenneth L. Knight, PhD, ATC
Kenneth L. Knight is Professor of Physical Education and Director of Graduate Athletic Training at Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Ind.
Christopher D. Ingersoll, PhD, ATC
Christopher D. Ingersoll is Assistant Professor of Physical Education at Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Ind.

Abstract

While ice and compression wraps are commonly used to treat musculoskeletal injuries, the literature describing intramuscular temperatures has not addressed the combination of ice and compression wraps. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intramuscular temperatures at three sites on the anterior thigh (skin surface, 1 cm below the fat layer, and 2 cm below the fat layer) using both ice and compression wraps. Temperatures were recorded in 11 subjects with an isothermex, using implantable and surface thermocouples. Each subject was tested under four conditions: control, compression only, ice only, and ice + compression according to a balanced Latin square. Surface and intramuscular temperatures were recorded at 30 second intervals during 5 minutes of preapplication, 30 minutes application, and 20 minutes postapplication. A repeated measures ANOVA and Duncan post hoc tests were used to evaluate peak temperature differences between the treatment conditions and the depths of measurement. Both ice alone and ice + compression produced significant cooling at all three depths (F(6,60) = 168.5, p<.0005). Likewise, during the 20-minute postapplication period, these temperatures did not return to their preapplication levels. The compression-only condition produced significant warming at the skin surface, but did not have any effect on intramuscular temperature. At all depths, the ice + compression condition produced significantly cooler temperatures than ice alone. We suggest that compression increases the effectiveness of ice in reducing tissue temperatures. Therefore, ice combined with compression should be more effective than ice alone in reducing the metabolism of injured tissue. This provides an additional rationale for combining ice with compression in treating acute musculoskeletal injuries.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.8M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Ashton H. The effect of increased tissue pressure on blood flow. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1975 Nov-Dec;(113):15–26. [PubMed]
  • Bugaj R. The cooling, analgesic, and rewarming effects of ice massage on localized skin. Phys Ther. 1975 Jan;55(1):11–19. [PubMed]
  • CLARKE RS, HELLON RF, LIND AR. The duration of sustained contractions of the human forearm at different muscle temperatures. J Physiol. 1958 Oct 31;143(3):454–473. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Florack G, Sutherland DE, Ascherl R, Heil J, Erhardt W, Najarian JS. Definition of normothermic ischemia limits for kidney and pancreas grafts. J Surg Res. 1986 Jun;40(6):550–563. [PubMed]
  • Hochachka PW. Metabolic arrest. Intensive Care Med. 1986;12(3):127–133. [PubMed]
  • Kellett J. Acute soft tissue injuries--a review of the literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1986 Oct;18(5):489–500. [PubMed]
  • Lowdon BJ, Moore RJ. Determinants and nature of intramuscular temperature changes during cold therapy. Am J Phys Med. 1975 Oct;54(5):223–233. [PubMed]
  • McGown HL. Effects of cold application on maximal isometric contraction. Phys Ther. 1967 Mar;47(3):185–192. [PubMed]
  • Mancuso DL, Knight KL. Effects of Prior Physical Activity on Skin Surface Temperature Response of the Ankle During and After a 30-minute Ice Pack Application. J Athl Train. 1992;27(3):242–249. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • May JW, Jr, Hergrueter CA, Hansen RH. Seven-digit replantation: digit survival after 39 hours of cold ischemia. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1986 Oct;78(4):522–525. [PubMed]
  • Mecomber SA, Herman RM. Effects of local hypothermia on reflex and voluntary activity. Phys Ther. 1971 Mar;51(3):271–281. [PubMed]
  • Meeusen R, Lievens P. The use of cryotherapy in sports injuries. Sports Med. 1986 Nov-Dec;3(6):398–414. [PubMed]
  • Michael ED, Jr, Katch FI. Prediction of body density from skin-fold and girth measurements of 17-year-old boys. J Appl Physiol. 1968 Dec;25(6):747–750. [PubMed]
  • PETAJAN JH, WATTS N. Effects of cooling on the triceps surae reflex. Am J Phys Med. 1962 Dec;41:240–251. [PubMed]
  • Steffen JM. Glucose, glycogen, and insulin responses in the hypothermic rat. Cryobiology. 1988 Apr;25(2):94–101. [PubMed]
  • Torlińska T, Paluszak J, Koźlik J, Kruk D, Gryczka AZ, Krauss H. Activity of certain enzymes in the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic fractions of liver cells, myocardium and skeletal muscle of the rat during short-lasting hypothermia. Acta Physiol Pol. 1982 Sep-Dec;33(5-6):545–550. [PubMed]
  • Wolf SL, Basmajian JV. Intramuscular temperature changes deep to localized cutaneous cold stimulation. Phys Ther. 1973 Dec;53(12):1284–1288. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Athletic Training are provided here courtesy of National Athletic Trainers Association

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...