• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of westjmedLink to Publisher's site
West J Med. Dec 1986; 145(6): 830–839.
PMCID: PMC1307157

Medical Expert Systems—Knowledge Tools for Physicians

Abstract

Recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence have led to the emergence of expert systems, computational tools designed to capture and make available the knowledge of experts in a field. Although much of the underlying technology available today is derived from basic research on biomedical advice systems during the 1970s, medical application packages are thus far generally unavailable from the young artificial intelligence industry. Medical expert systems will begin to appear, however, as researchers in medical artificial intelligence continue to make progress in key areas such as knowledge acquisition, model-based reasoning and system integration for clinical environments. It is accordingly important for physicians to understand the current state of such research and the theoretic and logistic barriers that remain before useful systems can be made available. One experimental system, ONCOCIN, provides a glimpse of the kinds of knowledge-based tools that will someday be available to physicians.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • LEDLEY RS, LUSTED LB. Reasoning foundations of medical diagnosis; symbolic logic, probability, and value theory aid our understanding of how physicians reason. Science. 1959 Jul 3;130(3366):9–21. [PubMed]
  • Yu VL, Fagan LM, Wraith SM, Clancey WJ, Scott AC, Hannigan J, Blum RL, Buchanan BG, Cohen SN. Antimicrobial selection by a computer. A blinded evaluation by infectious diseases experts. JAMA. 1979 Sep 21;242(12):1279–1282. [PubMed]
  • Pauker SG, Gorry GA, Kassirer JP, Schwartz WB. Towards the simulation of clinical cognition. Taking a present illness by computer. Am J Med. 1976 Jun;60(7):981–996. [PubMed]
  • Miller RA, Pople HE, Jr, Myers JD. Internist-1, an experimental computer-based diagnostic consultant for general internal medicine. N Engl J Med. 1982 Aug 19;307(8):468–476. [PubMed]
  • Kassirer JP, Gorry GA. Clinical problem solving: a behavioral analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1978 Aug;89(2):245–255. [PubMed]
  • Campbell AN, Hollister VF, Duda RO, Hart PE. Recognition of a hidden mineral deposit by an artificial intelligence program. Science. 1982 Sep 3;217(4563):927–929. [PubMed]
  • Duda RO, Shortliffe EH. Expert Systems Research. Science. 1983 Apr 15;220(4594):261–268. [PubMed]
  • Aikins JS, Kunz JC, Shortliffe EH, Fallat RJ. PUFF: an expert system for interpretation of pulmonary function data. Comput Biomed Res. 1983 Jun;16(3):199–208. [PubMed]
  • Hickam DH, Shortliffe EH, Bischoff MB, Scott AC, Jacobs CD. The treatment advice of a computer-based cancer chemotherapy protocol advisor. Ann Intern Med. 1985 Dec;103(6 ):928–936. [PubMed]
  • Pryor TA, Gardner RM, Clayton PD, Warner HR. The HELP system. J Med Syst. 1983 Apr;7(2):87–102. [PubMed]
  • Shortliffe EH. Reasoning methods in medical consultation systems: artificial intelligence approaches. Comput Programs Biomed. 1984 Feb-Apr;18(1-2):5–13. [PubMed]
  • Cooper GF. A diagnostic method that uses causal knowledge and linear programming in the application of Bayes' formula. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 1986 Apr;22(2):223–237. [PubMed]
  • Teach RL, Shortliffe EH. An analysis of physician attitudes regarding computer-based clinical consultation systems. Comput Biomed Res. 1981 Dec;14(6):542–558. [PubMed]
  • Morgan Peter P. Preventive and Community Medicine. Can Med Assoc J. 1981 Oct 15;125(8):b874–876. [PMC free article]
  • Kent DL, Shortliffe EH, Carlson RW, Bischoff MB, Jacobs CD. Improvements in data collection through physician use of a computer-based chemotherapy treatment consultant. J Clin Oncol. 1985 Oct;3(10):1409–1417. [PubMed]
  • Lane CD, Walton JD, Shortliffe EH. Graphical access to medical expert systems: II. Design of an interface for physicians. Methods Inf Med. 1986 Jul;25(3):143–150. [PubMed]

Articles from The Western Journal of Medicine are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...