• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of biophysjLink to Publisher's site
Biophys J. Dec 2000; 79(6): 2801–2817.
PMCID: PMC1301161

Engineering aspects of enzymatic signal transduction: photoreceptors in the retina.

Abstract

Identifying the basic module of enzymatic amplification as an irreversible cycle of messenger activation/deactivation by a "push-pull" pair of opposing enzymes, we analyze it in terms of gain, bandwidth, noise, and power consumption. The enzymatic signal transduction cascade is viewed as an information channel, the design of which is governed by the statistical properties of the input and the noise and dynamic range constraints of the output. With the example of vertebrate phototransduction cascade we demonstrate that all of the relevant engineering parameters are controlled by enzyme concentrations and, from functional considerations, derive bounds on the required protein numbers. Conversely, the ability of enzymatic networks to change their response characteristics by varying only the abundance of different enzymes illustrates how functional diversity may be built from nearly conserved molecular components.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (298K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Alon U, Surette MG, Barkai N, Leibler S. Robustness in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature. 1999 Jan 14;397(6715):168–171. [PubMed]
  • Barkai N, Leibler S. Robustness in simple biochemical networks. Nature. 1997 Jun 26;387(6636):913–917. [PubMed]
  • Baylor D. How photons start vision. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jan 23;93(2):560–565. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Baylor DA, Hodgkin AL, Lamb TD. The electrical response of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light. J Physiol. 1974 Nov;242(3):685–727. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berg HC. Bacterial microprocessing. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1990;55:539–545. [PubMed]
  • Bodoia RD, Detwiler PB. Patch-clamp recordings of the light-sensitive dark noise in retinal rods from the lizard and frog. J Physiol. 1985 Oct;367:183–216. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bray D. Protein molecules as computational elements in living cells. Nature. 1995 Jul 27;376(6538):307–312. [PubMed]
  • Chen CK, Burns ME, He W, Wensel TG, Baylor DA, Simon MI. Slowed recovery of rod photoresponse in mice lacking the GTPase accelerating protein RGS9-1. Nature. 2000 Feb 3;403(6769):557–560. [PubMed]
  • Chock PB, Stadtman ER. Superiority of interconvertible enzyme cascades in metabolite regulation: analysis of multicyclic systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Jul;74(7):2766–2770. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fawzi AB, Northup JK. Guanine nucleotide binding characteristics of transducin: essential role of rhodopsin for rapid exchange of guanine nucleotides. Biochemistry. 1990 Apr 17;29(15):3804–3812. [PubMed]
  • Gold GH, Pugh EN., Jr Olfactory adaptation. The nose leads the eye. Nature. 1997 Feb 20;385(6618):677–679. [PubMed]
  • Gorczyca WA, Gray-Keller MP, Detwiler PB, Palczewski K. Purification and physiological evaluation of a guanylate cyclase activating protein from retinal rods. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 26;91(9):4014–4018. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gray-Keller M, Denk W, Shraiman B, Detwiler PB. Longitudinal spread of second messenger signals in isolated rod outer segments of lizards. J Physiol. 1999 Sep 15;519(Pt 3):679–692. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gray-Keller MP, Detwiler PB. The calcium feedback signal in the phototransduction cascade of vertebrate rods. Neuron. 1994 Oct;13(4):849–861. [PubMed]
  • He W, Cowan CW, Wensel TG. RGS9, a GTPase accelerator for phototransduction. Neuron. 1998 Jan;20(1):95–102. [PubMed]
  • Klenchin VA, Calvert PD, Bownds MD. Inhibition of rhodopsin kinase by recoverin. Further evidence for a negative feedback system in phototransduction. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jul 7;270(27):16147–16152. [PubMed]
  • Koch KW, Stryer L. Highly cooperative feedback control of retinal rod guanylate cyclase by calcium ions. Nature. 1988 Jul 7;334(6177):64–66. [PubMed]
  • Kolesnikov SS, Margolskee RF. A cyclic-nucleotide-suppressible conductance activated by transducin in taste cells. Nature. 1995 Jul 6;376(6535):85–88. [PubMed]
  • Koshland DE, Jr, Goldbeter A, Stock JB. Amplification and adaptation in regulatory and sensory systems. Science. 1982 Jul 16;217(4556):220–225. [PubMed]
  • Koutalos Y, Yau KW. Regulation of sensitivity in vertebrate rod photoreceptors by calcium. Trends Neurosci. 1996 Feb;19(2):73–81. [PubMed]
  • Lamb TD, Pugh EN., Jr A quantitative account of the activation steps involved in phototransduction in amphibian photoreceptors. J Physiol. 1992 Apr;449:719–758. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laughlin S. A simple coding procedure enhances a neuron's information capacity. Z Naturforsch C. 1981 Sep-Oct;36(9-10):910–912. [PubMed]
  • Naka KI, Itoh MA, Chappell RL. Dynamics of turtle cones. J Gen Physiol. 1987 Feb;89(2):321–337. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nikonov S, Engheta N, Pugh EN., Jr Kinetics of recovery of the dark-adapted salamander rod photoresponse. J Gen Physiol. 1998 Jan;111(1):7–37. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Normann RA, Perlman I. The effects of background illumination on the photoresponses of red and green cones. J Physiol. 1979 Jan;286:491–507. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pepperberg DR, Cornwall MC, Kahlert M, Hofmann KP, Jin J, Jones GJ, Ripps H. Light-dependent delay in the falling phase of the retinal rod photoresponse. Vis Neurosci. 1992 Jan;8(1):9–18. [PubMed]
  • Reed RR. How does the nose know? Cell. 1990 Jan 12;60(1):1–2. [PubMed]
  • Rieke F, Baylor DA. Molecular origin of continuous dark noise in rod photoreceptors. Biophys J. 1996 Nov;71(5):2553–2572. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rieke F, Baylor DA. Origin of reproducibility in the responses of retinal rods to single photons. Biophys J. 1998 Oct;75(4):1836–1857. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rieke F, Schwartz EA. A cGMP-gated current can control exocytosis at cone synapses. Neuron. 1994 Oct;13(4):863–873. [PubMed]
  • Rispoli G, Sather WA, Detwiler PB. Visual transduction in dialysed detached rod outer segments from lizard retina. J Physiol. 1993 Jun;465:513–537. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Simon MI, Strathmann MP, Gautam N. Diversity of G proteins in signal transduction. Science. 1991 May 10;252(5007):802–808. [PubMed]
  • Stadtman ER, Chock PB. Superiority of interconvertible enzyme cascades in metabolic regulation: analysis of monocyclic systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Jul;74(7):2761–2765. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stryer L. Visual excitation and recovery. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jun 15;266(17):10711–10714. [PubMed]
  • Tranchina D, Sneyd J, Cadenas ID. Light adaptation in turtle cones. Testing and analysis of a model for phototransduction. Biophys J. 1991 Jul;60(1):217–237. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Turrigiano G, Abbott LF, Marder E. Activity-dependent changes in the intrinsic properties of cultured neurons. Science. 1994 May 13;264(5161):974–977. [PubMed]
  • Wray GA. Promoter logic. Science. 1998 Mar 20;279(5358):1871–1872. [PubMed]

Articles from Biophysical Journal are provided here courtesy of The Biophysical Society

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...