• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jrsocmedLink to Publisher's site
J R Soc Med. Sep 1997; 90(9): 515–520.
PMCID: PMC1296535

What caused the 1918-30 epidemic of encephalitis lethargica?

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • DUVOISIN RC, YAHR MD. ENCEPHALITIS AND PARKINSONISM. Arch Neurol. 1965 Mar;12:227–239. [PubMed]
  • Harrington M, Draper IT. Post-influenzal encephalitis and Reye's syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1981 Jul;44(7):649–649. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Crookshank FG. A Note on the History of Epidemic Encephalomyelitis. Proc R Soc Med. 1919;12(Suppl):1.1–21.1. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ravenholt RT, Foege WH. 1918 influenza, encephalitis lethargica, parkinsonism. Lancet. 1982 Oct 16;2(8303):860–864. [PubMed]
  • Rail D, Scholtz C, Swash M. Post-encephalitic Parkinsonism: current experience. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1981 Aug;44(8):670–676. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Clements GB, McGarry F, Nairn C, Galbraith DN. Detection of enterovirus-specific RNA in serum: the relationship to chronic fatigue. J Med Virol. 1995 Feb;45(2):156–161. [PubMed]
  • Bowles NE, Bayston TA, Zhang HY, Doyle D, Lane RJ, Cunningham L, Archard LC. Persistence of enterovirus RNA in muscle biopsy samples suggests that some cases of chronic fatigue syndrome result from a previous, inflammatory viral myopathy. J Med. 1993;24(2-3):145–160. [PubMed]
  • Elizan TS, Casals J, Swash M. No viral antigens detected in brain tissue from a case of acute encephalitis lethargica and another case of post-encephalitic parkinsonism. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989 Jun;52(6):800–801. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bojinov S. Encephalitis with acute Parkinsonian syndrome and bilateral inflammatory necrosis of the substantia nigra. J Neurol Sci. 1971 Apr;12(4):383–415. [PubMed]
  • LINDENMANN J, LANE CA, HOBSON D. THE RESISTANCE OF A2G MICE TO MYXOVIRUSES. J Immunol. 1963 Jun;90:942–951. [PubMed]
  • Fiske RA, Klein PA. Effect of immunosuppression on the genetic resistance of A2G mice to neurovirulent influenza virus. Infect Immun. 1975 Mar;11(3):576–587. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mirchink EP, Zuev VA, Iamnikova SS, Vorkunova GV. Izmenenie nekotorykh svoistv virusa grippa v protsesse persistentsii v organizme myshai s medlennoi grippoznoi infektsii. Vopr Virusol. 1992 Jan-Feb;37(1):46–49. [PubMed]
  • Gamboa ET, Wolf A, Yahr MD, Harter DH, Duffy PE, Barden H, Hsu KC. Influenza virus antigen in postencephalitic parkinsonism brain. Detection by immunofluorescence. Arch Neurol. 1974 Oct;31(4):228–232. [PubMed]
  • Ishii T, Nakamura Y. Distribution and ultrastructure of Alzheimer's neurofibrillary tangles in postencephalitic Parkinsonism of Economo type. Acta Neuropathol. 1981;55(1):59–62. [PubMed]
  • Gosztonyi G, Cervós-Navarro J. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic techniques in the diagnosis of viral encephalitides. Pathol Res Pract. 1988 Jun;183(3):223–252. [PubMed]
  • Elizan TS, Terasaki PI, Yahr MD. HLA-B14 antigen and postencephalitic Parkinson's disease. Their association in an American-Jewish ethnic group. Arch Neurol. 1980 Sep;37(9):542–544. [PubMed]
  • Laing P, Knight JG, Hill JM, Harris AG, Oxford JS, Webster RG, Markwell MA, Paul SM, Pert CB. Influenza viruses induce autoantibodies to a brain-specific 37-kDa protein in rabbit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Mar;86(6):1998–2002. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Geddes JF, Hughes AJ, Lees AJ, Daniel SE. Pathological overlap in cases of parkinsonism associated with neurofibrillary tangles. A study of recent cases of postencephalitic parkinsonism and comparison with progressive supranuclear palsy and Guamanian parkinsonism-dementia complex. Brain. 1993 Feb;116(Pt 1):281–302. [PubMed]
  • Lück PC, Helbig JH, Witzleb W. Immunofluorescent staining of influenza virus antigen in fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue of experimentally infected hamsters. Acta Histochem. 1989;85(1):47–50. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine are provided here courtesy of Royal Society of Medicine Press

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...