Logo of envhperEnvironmental Health PerspectivesBrowse ArticlesAbout EHPGeneral InformationAuthorsMediaProgramsPartnerships
Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Mar; 109(Suppl 1): 35–47.
PMCID: PMC1240541
Research Article

Pesticides and breast cancer risk: a review of DDT, DDE, and dieldrin.


Established risk factors for breast cancer explain breast cancer risk only partially. Hence, there has been interest in evaluating what role environmental chemicals, especially those with evidence of being hormonally active agents, play in breast cancer risk. Organochlorine pesticides have received the most attention because of their persistence in the environment, ability to concentrate up the food chain, continued detection in the food supply and breast milk, and ability to be stored in the adipose tissue of animals and humans. Although several early descriptive studies and a cohort study identified a strong positive association with breast cancer risk and adipose or blood levels of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and/or its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), most of the more recent case--control and nested case--control studies have not supported this association. In this review I discuss these findings and explore how exposure to different forms of DDT with varying estrogenicities may have affected the results of these studies. I also address how other factors influence the interpretation of the studies on DDT, DDE, and breast cancer risk. These include the effect of analytic methods, dietary factors, menopausal status, use of different types of control populations, lactation history, estrogen receptor status, ethnic/racial subgroups, breast tumor characteristics, and polymorphisms. I also discuss the emerging research on whether serum levels of the persistent organochlorine insecticide dieldrin are related to breast cancer risk in Danish and American women. Further research needs are also identified.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (522K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Harris JR, Lippman ME, Veronesi U, Willett W. Breast cancer (1) N Engl J Med. 1992 Jul 30;327(5):319–328. [PubMed]
  • Madigan MP, Ziegler RG, Benichou J, Byrne C, Hoover RN. Proportion of breast cancer cases in the United States explained by well-established risk factors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995 Nov 15;87(22):1681–1685. [PubMed]
  • Davis DL, Bradlow HL, Wolff M, Woodruff T, Hoel DG, Anton-Culver H. Medical hypothesis: xenoestrogens as preventable causes of breast cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 1993 Oct;101(5):372–377. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mustafa IA, Bland KI. Physiologic effects of steroid hormones and postmenopausal hormone replacement on the female breast and breast cancer risk. Ann Surg. 1998 Nov;228(5):638–651. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pike MC, Spicer DV, Dahmoush L, Press MF. Estrogens, progestogens, normal breast cell proliferation, and breast cancer risk. Epidemiol Rev. 1993;15(1):17–35. [PubMed]
  • Preston-Martin S, Pike MC, Ross RK, Jones PA, Henderson BE. Increased cell division as a cause of human cancer. Cancer Res. 1990 Dec 1;50(23):7415–7421. [PubMed]
  • Russo IH, Russo J. Role of hormones in mammary cancer initiation and progression. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 1998 Jan;3(1):49–61. [PubMed]
  • Woodwell GM, Craig PP, Johnson HA. DDT in the biosphere: where does it go? Science. 1971 Dec 10;174(4014):1101–1107. [PubMed]
  • Fry DM, Toone CK. DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos. Science. 1981 Aug 21;213(4510):922–924. [PubMed]
  • Fry DM. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals. Environ Health Perspect. 1995 Oct;103 (Suppl 7):165–171. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kutz FW, Wood PH, Bottimore DP. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 1991;120:1–82. [PubMed]
  • Stellman SD, Djordjevic MV, Muscat JE, Gong L, Bernstein D, Citron ML, White A, Kemeny M, Busch E, Nafziger AN. Relative abundance of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue and serum of women in Long Island, New York. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998 Jun;7(6):489–496. [PubMed]
  • Hargrave BT, Harding GC, Vass WP, Erickson PE, Fowler BR, Scott V. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Arctic Ocean food web. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1992 Jan;22(1):41–54. [PubMed]
  • Schmitt CJ, Zajicek JL, May TW, Cowman DF. Organochlorine residues and elemental contaminants in U.S. freshwater fish, 1976-1986: National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 1999;162:43–104. [PubMed]
  • Waliszewski SM, Pardio VT, Chantiri JN, Infanzon RM, Rivera J. Organochlorine pesticide residues in adipose tissue of Mexicans. Sci Total Environ. 1996 Mar 15;181(2):125–131. [PubMed]
  • Kutz FW, Yobs AR, Strassman SC. Racial stratification of organochlorine insecticide residues in human adipose tissue. J Occup Med. 1977 Sep;19(9):619–622. [PubMed]
  • Schildkraut JM, Demark-Wahnefried W, DeVoto E, Hughes C, Laseter JL, Newman B. Environmental contaminants and body fat distribution. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999 Feb;8(2):179–183. [PubMed]
  • Hooper K, Petreas MX, Chuvakova T, Kazbekova G, Druz N, Seminova G, Sharmanov T, Hayward D, She J, Visita P, et al. Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakstan: high levels of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in agricultural villages of southern Kazakstan. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Dec;106(12):797–806. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chikuni O, Skare JU, Nyazema N, Polder A. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in human milk from mothers living in the greater Harare area of Zimbabwe. Cent Afr J Med. 1991 May;37(5):136–141. [PubMed]
  • Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Pyysalo H, Antervo K. Relation between the content of organochlorine compounds in Finnish human milk and characteristics of the mothers. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1988;25(1):1–19. [PubMed]
  • Lutter C, Iyengar V, Barnes R, Chuvakova T, Kazbekova G, Sharmanov T. Breast milk contamination in Kazakhstan: implications for infant feeding. Chemosphere. 1998 Oct-Nov;37(9-12):1761–1772. [PubMed]
  • Trotter WJ, Dickerson R. Pesticide residues in composited milk collected through the U.S. Pasteurized Milk Network. J AOAC Int. 1993 Nov-Dec;76(6):1220–1225. [PubMed]
  • Waliszewski SM, Pardio VT, Waliszewski KN, Chantiri JN, Infanzon RM, Rivera J. Detection of some organochlorine pesticides in cow's milk. Food Addit Contam. 1996 Feb-Mar;13(2):231–235. [PubMed]
  • Wong SK, Lee WO. Survey of organochlorine pesticide residues in milk in Hong Kong (1993-1995). J AOAC Int. 1997 Nov-Dec;80(6):1332–1335. [PubMed]
  • Whitemore RW, Immerman FW, Camann DE, Bond AE, Lewis RG, Schaum JL. Non-occupational exposures to pesticides for residents of two U.S. cities. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1994 Jan;26(1):47–59. [PubMed]
  • Starr HG, Jr, Aldrich FD, MacDougall WD, 3rd, Mounce LM. Contribution of household dust to the human exposure to pesticides. Pestic Monit J. 1974 Dec;8(3):209–212. [PubMed]
  • Andersen HR, Andersson AM, Arnold SF, Autrup H, Barfoed M, Beresford NA, Bjerregaard P, Christiansen LB, Gissel B, Hummel R, et al. Comparison of short-term estrogenicity tests for identification of hormone-disrupting chemicals. Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Feb;107 (Suppl 1):89–108. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bulger WH, Kupfer D. Estrogenic action of DDT analogs. Am J Ind Med. 1983;4(1-2):163–173. [PubMed]
  • Klotz DM, Beckman BS, Hill SM, McLachlan JA, Walters MR, Arnold SF. Identification of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity using a combination of in vitro assays. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Oct;104(10):1084–1089. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Welch RM, Levin W, Conney AH. Estrogenic action of DDT and its analogs. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1969 Mar;14(2):358–367. [PubMed]
  • Mason RR, Schulte GJ. Interaction of o,p'-DDT with the estrogen-binding protein (EBP) of DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1981 Jul;33(1):119–128. [PubMed]
  • Dees C, Askari M, Foster JS, Ahamed S, Wimalasena J. DDT mimicks estradiol stimulation of breast cancer cells to enter the cell cycle. Mol Carcinog. 1997 Feb;18(2):107–114. [PubMed]
  • Danzo BJ. Environmental xenobiotics may disrupt normal endocrine function by interfering with the binding of physiological ligands to steroid receptors and binding proteins. Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Mar;105(3):294–301. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shekhar PV, Werdell J, Basrur VS. Environmental estrogen stimulation of growth and estrogen receptor function in preneoplastic and cancerous human breast cell lines. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 Dec 3;89(23):1774–1782. [PubMed]
  • Soto AM, Sonnenschein C, Chung KL, Fernandez MF, Olea N, Serrano FO. The E-SCREEN assay as a tool to identify estrogens: an update on estrogenic environmental pollutants. Environ Health Perspect. 1995 Oct;103 (Suppl 7):113–122. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Robison AK, Sirbasku DA, Stancel GM. DDT supports the growth of an estrogen-responsive tumor. Toxicol Lett. 1985 Sep;27(1-3):109–113. [PubMed]
  • Scribner JD, Mottet NK. DDT acceleration of mammary gland tumors induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rat by 2-acetamidophenanthrene. Carcinogenesis. 1981;2(12):1235–1239. [PubMed]
  • Lin ZX, Kavanagh T, Trosko JE, Chang CC. Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication in human teratocarcinoma cells by organochlorine pesticides. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1986 Mar 30;83(1):10–19. [PubMed]
  • Edmunds JS, McCarthy RA, Ramsdell JS. Permanent and functional male-to-female sex reversal in d-rR strain medaka (Oryzias latipes) following egg microinjection of o,p'-DDT. Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Mar;108(3):219–224. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • vom Saal FS, Nagel SC, Palanza P, Boechler M, Parmigiani S, Welshons WV. Estrogenic pesticides: binding relative to estradiol in MCF-7 cells and effects of exposure during fetal life on subsequent territorial behaviour in male mice. Toxicol Lett. 1995 May;77(1-3):343–350. [PubMed]
  • Ahmad N, Bugueno G, Guo L, Marolt R. Determination of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues in fruits, vegetables and sediments. J Environ Sci Health B. 1999 Sep;34(5):829–848. [PubMed]
  • Schecter A, Cramer P, Boggess K, Stanley J, Olson JR. Levels of dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCB and DDE congeners in pooled food samples collected in 1995 at supermarkets across the United States. Chemosphere. 1997 Mar-Apr;34(5-7):1437–1447. [PubMed]
  • Schecter A, Li L. Dioxins, dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and DDE in U.S. fast food, 1995. Chemosphere. 1997 Mar-Apr;34(5-7):1449–1457. [PubMed]
  • MacIntosh DL, Spengler JD, Ozkaynak H, Tsai L, Ryan PB. Dietary exposures to selected metals and pesticides. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Feb;104(2):202–209. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Willett LB, O'Donnell AF, Durst HI, Kurz MM. Mechanisms of movement of organochlorine pesticides from soils to cows via forages. J Dairy Sci. 1993 Jun;76(6):1635–1644. [PubMed]
  • Ferrer A, Bona MA, Castellano M, To-Figueras J, Brunet M. Organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue of the population of Zaragoza (Spain). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1992 Apr;48(4):561–566. [PubMed]
  • Teschke K, Kelly SJ, Wiens M, Hertzman C, Dimich-Ward H, Ward JE, Van Oostdam JC. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in the adipose tissue of British Columbia residents. Can J Public Health. 1993 May-Jun;84(3):192–196. [PubMed]
  • Krieger N, Wolff MS, Hiatt RA, Rivera M, Vogelman J, Orentreich N. Breast cancer and serum organochlorines: a prospective study among white, black, and Asian women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 Apr 20;86(8):589–599. [PubMed]
  • Wolff MS, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Dubin N, Toniolo P. Risk of breast cancer and organochlorine exposure. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Mar;9(3):271–277. [PubMed]
  • Waliszewski SM, Aguirre AA, Infanzón RM, Rivera J, Infanzón R. Time trend of organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Veracruz, Mexico: 1988-1997 survey. Sci Total Environ. 1998 Oct 8;221(2-3):201–204. [PubMed]
  • Dewailly E, Mulvad G, Pedersen HS, Ayotte P, Demers A, Weber JP, Hansen JC. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland. Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Oct;107(10):823–828. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Unger M, Olsen J. Organochlorine compounds in the adipose tissue of deceased people with and without cancer. Environ Res. 1980 Dec;23(2):257–263. [PubMed]
  • Unger M, Kiaer H, Blichert-Toft M, Olsen J, Clausen J. Organochlorine compounds in human breast fat from deceased with and without breast cancer and in a biopsy material from newly diagnosed patients undergoing breast surgery. Environ Res. 1984 Jun;34(1):24–28. [PubMed]
  • Dewailly E, Dodin S, Verreault R, Ayotte P, Sauvé L, Morin J, Brisson J. High organochlorine body burden in women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 Feb 2;86(3):232–234. [PubMed]
  • Djordjevic MV, Hoffmann D, Fan J, Prokopczyk B, Citron ML, Stellman SD. Assessment of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose breast tissue using a supercritical fluid extraction method. Carcinogenesis. 1994 Nov;15(11):2581–2585. [PubMed]
  • Falck F, Jr, Ricci A, Jr, Wolff MS, Godbold J, Deckers P. Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human breast lipids and their relation to breast cancer. Arch Environ Health. 1992 Mar-Apr;47(2):143–146. [PubMed]
  • Helzlsouer KJ, Alberg AJ, Huang HY, Hoffman SC, Strickland PT, Brock JW, Burse VW, Needham LL, Bell DA, Lavigne JA, et al. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and the subsequent development of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999 Jun;8(6):525–532. [PubMed]
  • Høyer AP, Grandjean P, Jørgensen T, Brock JW, Hartvig HB. Organochlorine exposure and risk of breast cancer. Lancet. 1998 Dec 5;352(9143):1816–1820. [PubMed]
  • Dorgan JF, Brock JW, Rothman N, Needham LL, Miller R, Stephenson HE, Jr, Schussler N, Taylor PR. Serum organochlorine pesticides and PCBs and breast cancer risk: results from a prospective analysis (USA). Cancer Causes Control. 1999 Feb;10(1):1–11. [PubMed]
  • Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, Laden F, Colditz GA, Manson JE, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Wolff MS. Plasma organochlorine levels and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1997 Oct 30;337(18):1253–1258. [PubMed]
  • Wolff MS, Toniolo PG, Lee EW, Rivera M, Dubin N. Blood levels of organochlorine residues and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993 Apr 21;85(8):648–652. [PubMed]
  • Moysich KB, Ambrosone CB, Vena JE, Shields PG, Mendola P, Kostyniak P, Greizerstein H, Graham S, Marshall JR, Schisterman EF, et al. Environmental organochlorine exposure and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998 Mar;7(3):181–188. [PubMed]
  • Schecter A, Toniolo P, Dai LC, Thuy LT, Wolff MS. Blood levels of DDT and breast cancer risk among women living in the north of Vietnam. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1997 Nov;33(4):453–456. [PubMed]
  • López-Carrillo L, Blair A, López-Cervantes M, Cebrián M, Rueda C, Reyes R, Mohar A, Bravo J. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane serum levels and breast cancer risk: a case-control study from Mexico. Cancer Res. 1997 Sep 1;57(17):3728–3732. [PubMed]
  • Olaya-Contreras P, Rodríguez-Villamil J, Posso-Valencia HJ, Cortez JE. Organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk in Colombian women. Cad Saude Publica. 1998;14 (Suppl 3):125–132. [PubMed]
  • Mendonça GA, Eluf-Neto J, Andrada-Serpa MJ, Carmo PA, Barreto HH, Inomata ON, Kussumi TA. Organochlorines and breast cancer: a case-control study in Brazil. Int J Cancer. 1999 Nov 26;83(5):596–600. [PubMed]
  • Zheng T, Holford TR, Mayne ST, Tessari J, Ward B, Carter D, Owens PH, Boyle P, Dubrow R, Archibeque-Engle S, et al. Risk of female breast cancer associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyls and 1,1-dichloro-2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Feb;9(2):167–174. [PubMed]
  • Dello Iacovo R, Celentano E, Strollo AM, Iazzetta G, Capasso I, Randazzo G. Organochlorines and breast cancer. A study on Neapolitan women. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;472:57–66. [PubMed]
  • Güttes S, Failing K, Neumann K, Kleinstein J, Georgii S, Brunn H. Chlororganic pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in breast tissue of women with benign and malignant breast disease. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1998 Jul;35(1):140–147. [PubMed]
  • Liljegren G, Hardell L, Lindström G, Dahl P, Magnuson A. Case-control study on breast cancer and adipose tissue concentrations of congener specific polychlorinated biphenyls, DDE and hexachlorobenzene. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1998 Apr;7(2):135–140. [PubMed]
  • van't Veer P, Lobbezoo IE, Martín-Moreno JM, Guallar E, Gómez-Aracena J, Kardinaal AF, Kohlmeier L, Martin BC, Strain JJ, Thamm M, et al. DDT (dicophane) and postmenopausal breast cancer in Europe: case-control study. BMJ. 1997 Jul 12;315(7100):81–85. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Aronson KJ, Miller AB, Woolcott CG, Sterns EE, McCready DR, Lickley LA, Fish EB, Hiraki GY, Holloway C, Ross T, et al. Breast adipose tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Jan;9(1):55–63. [PubMed]
  • Romieu I, Hernandez-Avila M, Lazcano-Ponce E, Weber JP, Dewailly E. Breast cancer, lactation history, and serum organochlorines. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Aug 15;152(4):363–370. [PubMed]
  • Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Häsänen E, Pyysalo H, Antervo K, Kauppila R, Pantzar P. Occurrence of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane in breast cancer patients. Cancer. 1990 Nov 15;66(10):2124–2128. [PubMed]
  • Zheng T, Holford TR, Mayne ST, Ward B, Carter D, Owens PH, Dubrow R, Zahm SH, Boyle P, Archibeque S, et al. DDE and DDT in breast adipose tissue and risk of female breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Sep 1;150(5):453–458. [PubMed]
  • Blackwood A, Wolff M, Rundle A, Estabrook A, Schnabel F, Mooney LA, Rivera M, Channing KM, Perera FP. Organochlorine compounds (DDE and PCB) in plasma and breast cyst fluid of women with benign breast disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998 Jul;7(7):579–583. [PubMed]
  • López-Carrillo L, Torres-Sánchez L, López-Cervantes M, Blair A, Cebrián ME, Uribe M. The adipose tissue to serum dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE) ratio: some methodological considerations. Environ Res. 1999 Aug;81(2):142–145. [PubMed]
  • Gellert RJ, Heinrichs WL, Swerdloff RS. DDT homologues: estrogen-like effects on the vagina, uterus and pituitary of the rat. Endocrinology. 1972 Oct;91(4):1095–1100. [PubMed]
  • Bolger R, Wiese TE, Ervin K, Nestich S, Checovich W. Rapid screening of environmental chemicals for estrogen receptor binding capacity. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Sep;106(9):551–557. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kelce WR, Stone CR, Laws SC, Gray LE, Kemppainen JA, Wilson EM. Persistent DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE is a potent androgen receptor antagonist. Nature. 1995 Jun 15;375(6532):581–585. [PubMed]
  • Nelson JA. Effects of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) analogs and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures on 17beta-(3H)estradiol binding to rat uterine receptor. Biochem Pharmacol. 1974 Jan 15;23(2):447–451. [PubMed]
  • Kuiper GG, Lemmen JG, Carlsson B, Corton JC, Safe SH, van der Saag PT, van der Burg B, Gustafsson JA. Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta. Endocrinology. 1998 Oct;139(10):4252–4263. [PubMed]
  • Kelce WR, Wilson EM. Environmental antiandrogens: developmental effects, molecular mechanisms, and clinical implications. J Mol Med (Berl) 1997 Mar;75(3):198–207. [PubMed]
  • Maness SC, McDonnell DP, Gaido KW. Inhibition of androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional activity by DDT isomers and methoxychlor in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998 Jul;151(1):135–142. [PubMed]
  • Morgan DP, Roan CC. Absorption, storage, and metabolic conversion of ingested DDT and DDT metabolites in man. Arch Environ Health. 1971 Mar;22(3):301–308. [PubMed]
  • CUETO C, Jr, DURHAM WF, HAYES WJ., Jr The effect of known repeated oral doses of chlorophenothane (DDT) in man. J Am Med Assoc. 1956 Oct 27;162(9):890–897. [PubMed]
  • Gunderson EL. FDA Total Diet Study, July 1986-April 1991, dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals. J AOAC Int. 1995 Nov-Dec;78(6):1353–1363. [PubMed]
  • Dupont WD, Page DL, Parl FF, Vnencak-Jones CL, Plummer WD, Jr, Rados MS, Schuyler PA. Long-term risk of breast cancer in women with fibroadenoma. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jul 7;331(1):10–15. [PubMed]
  • Lordo RA, Dinh KT, Schwemberger JG. Semivolatile organic compounds in adipose tissue: estimated averages for the US population and selected subpopulations. Am J Public Health. 1996 Sep;86(9):1253–1259. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Savitz DA. Re: Breast cancer and serum organochlorines: a prospective study among white, black, and Asian women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 Aug 17;86(16):1255–1256. [PubMed]
  • Cocco P, Kazerouni N, Zahm SH. Cancer mortality and environmental exposure to DDE in the United States. Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jan;108(1):1–4. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bergman-Jungeström M, Gentile M, Lundin AC, Wingren S. Association between CYP17 gene polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in young women. Int J Cancer. 1999 Aug 20;84(4):350–353. [PubMed]
  • Haiman CA, Hankinson SE, Spiegelman D, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Kelsey KT, Hunter DJ. The relationship between a polymorphism in CYP17 with plasma hormone levels and breast cancer. Cancer Res. 1999 Mar 1;59(5):1015–1020. [PubMed]
  • Haiman CA, Hankinson SE, Spiegelman D, De Vivo I, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Hunter DJ. A tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism in CYP19 and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2000 Jul 15;87(2):204–210. [PubMed]
  • Huang CS, Chern HD, Chang KJ, Cheng CW, Hsu SM, Shen CY. Breast cancer risk associated with genotype polymorphism of the estrogen-metabolizing genes CYP17, CYP1A1, and COMT: a multigenic study on cancer susceptibility. Cancer Res. 1999 Oct 1;59(19):4870–4875. [PubMed]
  • Probst-Hensch NM, Ingles SA, Diep AT, Haile RW, Stanczyk FZ, Kolonel LN, Henderson BE. Aromatase and breast cancer susceptibility. Endocr Relat Cancer. 1999 Jun;6(2):165–173. [PubMed]
  • Taioli E, Bradlow HL, Garbers SV, Sepkovic DW, Osborne MP, Trachman J, Ganguly S, Garte SJ. Role of estradiol metabolism and CYP1A1 polymorphisms in breast cancer risk. Cancer Detect Prev. 1999;23(3):232–237. [PubMed]
  • Watanabe J, Shimada T, Gillam EM, Ikuta T, Suemasu K, Higashi Y, Gotoh O, Kawajiri K. Association of CYP1B1 genetic polymorphism with incidence to breast and lung cancer. Pharmacogenetics. 2000 Feb;10(1):25–33. [PubMed]
  • Høyer AP, Jørgensen T, Brock JW, Grandjean P. Organochlorine exposure and breast cancer survival. J Clin Epidemiol. 2000 Mar 1;53(3):323–330. [PubMed]
  • Sturgeon SR, Brock JW, Potischman N, Needham LL, Rothman N, Brinton LA, Hoover RN. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and endometrial cancer risk (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1998 Aug;9(4):417–424. [PubMed]
  • Soto AM, Chung KL, Sonnenschein C. The pesticides endosulfan, toxaphene, and dieldrin have estrogenic effects on human estrogen-sensitive cells. Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Apr;102(4):380–383. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Legler J, van den Brink CE, Brouwer A, Murk AJ, van der Saag PT, Vethaak AD, van der Burg B. Development of a stably transfected estrogen receptor-mediated luciferase reporter gene assay in the human T47D breast cancer cell line. Toxicol Sci. 1999 Mar;48(1):55–66. [PubMed]
  • Ramamoorthy K, Wang F, Chen IC, Safe S, Norris JD, McDonnell DP, Gaido KW, Bocchinfuso WP, Korach KS. Potency of combined estrogenic pesticides. Science. 1997 Jan 17;275(5298):405–406. [PubMed]
  • Wade MG, Desaulniers D, Leingartner K, Foster WG. Interactions between endosulfan and dieldrin on estrogen-mediated processes in vitro and in vivo. Reprod Toxicol. 1997 Nov-Dec;11(6):791–798. [PubMed]
  • Ramamoorthy K, Wang F, Chen IC, Norris JD, McDonnell DP, Leonard LS, Gaido KW, Bocchinfuso WP, Korach KS, Safe S. Estrogenic activity of a dieldrin/toxaphene mixture in the mouse uterus, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and yeast-based estrogen receptor assays: no apparent synergism. Endocrinology. 1997 Apr;138(4):1520–1527. [PubMed]
  • Arnold SF, Vonier PM, Collins BM, Klotz DM, Guillette LJ, Jr, McLachlan JA. In vitro synergistic interaction of alligator and human estrogen receptors with combinations of environmental chemicals. Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Apr;105 (Suppl 3):615–618. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Aschengrau A, Coogan PF, Quinn M, Cashins LJ. Occupational exposure to estrogenic chemicals and the occurrence of breast cancer: an exploratory analysis. Am J Ind Med. 1998 Jul;34(1):6–14. [PubMed]

Articles from Environmental Health Perspectives are provided here courtesy of National Institute of Environmental Health Science


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...