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Biochem J. Jun 1, 2004; 380(Pt 2): 297–309.
PMCID: PMC1224192

The ins and outs of FoxO shuttling: mechanisms of FoxO translocation and transcriptional regulation.


FoxO (forkhead box O; forkhead members of the O class) are transcription factors that function under the control of insulin/insulin-like signalling. FoxO factors have been associated with a multitude of biological processes, including cell-cycle, cell death, DNA repair, metabolism and protection from oxidative stress. Central to the regulation of FoxO factors is a shuttling system, which confines FoxO factors to either the nucleus or the cytosol. Shuttling of FoxO requires protein phosphorylation within several domains, and association with 14-3-3 proteins and the nuclear transport machinery. Description of the FoxO-shuttling mechanism contributes to the understanding of FoxO function in relation to signalling and gene regulation.

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Selected References

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