• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of biochemjBJ Latest papers and much more!
Biochem J. May 1, 2003; 371(Pt 3): 653–661.
PMCID: PMC1223326

L-serine in disease and development.

Abstract

The amino acid L-serine, one of the so-called non-essential amino acids, plays a central role in cellular proliferation. L-Serine is the predominant source of one-carbon groups for the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides and deoxythymidine monophosphate. It has long been recognized that, in cell cultures, L-serine is a conditional essential amino acid, because it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities to meet the cellular demands for its utilization. In recent years, L-serine and the products of its metabolism have been recognized not only to be essential for cell proliferation, but also to be necessary for specific functions in the central nervous system. The findings of altered levels of serine and glycine in patients with psychiatric disorders and the severe neurological abnormalities in patients with defects of L-serine synthesis underscore the importance of L-serine in brain development and function. This paper reviews these recent insights into the role of L-serine and the pathways of L-serine utilization in disease and during development, in particular of the central nervous system.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (182K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • MAXWELL M, MCCOY TA, NEUMAN RE. The amino acid requirements of the Walker carcinosarcoma 256 in vitro. Cancer Res. 1956 Nov;16(10 Pt 1):979–984. [PubMed]
  • EAGLE H. Amino acid metabolism in mammalian cell cultures. Science. 1959 Aug 21;130(3373):432–437. [PubMed]
  • Snell K, Natsumeda Y, Weber G. The modulation of serine metabolism in hepatoma 3924A during different phases of cellular proliferation in culture. Biochem J. 1987 Jul 15;245(2):609–612. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Narkewicz MR, Thureen PJ, Sauls SD, Tjoa S, Nikolayevsky N, Fennessey PV. Serine and glycine metabolism in hepatocytes from mid gestation fetal lambs. Pediatr Res. 1996 Jun;39(6):1085–1090. [PubMed]
  • Lowry M, Hall DE, Hall MS, Brosnan JT. Renal metabolism of amino acids in vivo: studies on serine and glycine fluxes. Am J Physiol. 1987 Feb;252(2 Pt 2):F304–F309. [PubMed]
  • GREENBERG DM, ICHIHARA A. Further studies on the pathway of serine formation from carbohydrate. J Biol Chem. 1957 Jan;224(1):331–340. [PubMed]
  • SALLACH HJ. Formation of serine hydroxypryuvate and L-alanine. J Biol Chem. 1956 Dec;223(2):1101–1108. [PubMed]
  • Rowsell EV, Snell K, Carnie JA, Al-Tai AH. Liver-L-alanine-glyoxylate and L-serine-pyruvate aminotransferase activities: an apparent association with gluconeogenesis. Biochem J. 1969 Dec;115(5):1071–1073. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cheung GP, Cotropia JP, Sallach HJ. The effects of dietary protein on the hepatic enzymes of serine metabolism in the rabbit. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1969 Feb;129(2):672–682. [PubMed]
  • Snell K. Enzymes of serine metabolism in normal, developing and neoplastic rat tissues. Adv Enzyme Regul. 1984;22:325–400. [PubMed]
  • Fallon HJ, Hackney EJ, Byrne WL. Serine biosynthesis in rat liver. Regulation of enzyme concentration by dietary factors. J Biol Chem. 1966 Sep 25;241(18):4157–4167. [PubMed]
  • Achouri Y, Robbi M, Van Schaftingen E. Role of cysteine in the dietary control of the expression of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase in rat liver. Biochem J. 1999 Nov 15;344(Pt 1):15–21. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fell DA, Snell K. Control analysis of mammalian serine biosynthesis. Feedback inhibition on the final step. Biochem J. 1988 Nov 15;256(1):97–101. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Snell K, Natsumeda Y, Eble JN, Glover JL, Weber G. Enzymic imbalance in serine metabolism in human colon carcinoma and rat sarcoma. Br J Cancer. 1988 Jan;57(1):87–90. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Strunck E, Frank K, Tan MI, Vollmer G. Expression of l-3-phosphoserine phosphatase is regulated by reconstituted basement membrane. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Mar 2;281(3):747–753. [PubMed]
  • Cho HM, Jun DY, Bae MA, Ahn JD, Kim YH. Nucleotide sequence and differential expression of the human 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene. Gene. 2000 Mar 7;245(1):193–201. [PubMed]
  • Klomp LW, de Koning TJ, Malingré HE, van Beurden EA, Brink M, Opdam FL, Duran M, Jaeken J, Pineda M, Van Maldergem L, et al. Molecular characterization of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency--a neurometabolic disorder associated with reduced L-serine biosynthesis. Am J Hum Genet. 2000 Dec;67(6):1389–1399. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Xue HH, Fujie M, Sakaguchi T, Oda T, Ogawa H, Kneer NM, Lardy HA, Ichiyama A. Flux of the L-serine metabolism in rat liver. The predominant contribution of serine dehydratase. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jun 4;274(23):16020–16027. [PubMed]
  • Xue HH, Sakaguchi T, Fujie M, Ogawa H, Ichiyama A. Flux of the L-serine metabolism in rabbit, human, and dog livers. Substantial contributions of both mitochondrial and peroxisomal serine:pyruvate/alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jun 4;274(23):16028–16033. [PubMed]
  • Felig P, Owen OE, Wahren J, Cahill GF., Jr Amino acid metabolism during prolonged starvation. J Clin Invest. 1969 Mar;48(3):584–594. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Felig P. Amino acid metabolism in man. Annu Rev Biochem. 1975;44:933–955. [PubMed]
  • De Miranda Joari, Panizzutti Rogerio, Foltyn Veronika N, Wolosker Herman. Cofactors of serine racemase that physiologically stimulate the synthesis of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor coagonist D-serine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 29;99(22):14542–14547. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wadman SK, Duran M, Ketting D, Bruinvis L, De Bree PK, Kamerling JP, Gerwig GJ, Vliegenthart JF, Przyrembel H, Becker K, et al. D-Glyceric acidemia in a patient with chronic metabolic acidosis. Clin Chim Acta. 1976 Sep 20;71(3):477–484. [PubMed]
  • Cybulski RL, Fisher RR. Intramitochondrial localization and proposed metabolic significance of serine transhydroxymethylase. Biochemistry. 1976 Jul 27;15(15):3183–3187. [PubMed]
  • Appling DR. Compartmentation of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism in eukaryotes. FASEB J. 1991 Sep;5(12):2645–2651. [PubMed]
  • Fu TF, Rife JP, Schirch V. The role of serine hydroxymethyltransferase isozymes in one-carbon metabolism in MCF-7 cells as determined by (13)C NMR. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001 Sep 1;393(1):42–50. [PubMed]
  • Herbig Katherine, Chiang En-Pei, Lee Ling-Ru, Hills Jessica, Shane Barry, Stover Patrick J. Cytoplasmic serine hydroxymethyltransferase mediates competition between folate-dependent deoxyribonucleotide and S-adenosylmethionine biosyntheses. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 11;277(41):38381–38389. [PubMed]
  • Lin HB, Falchetto R, Mosca PJ, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Hamlin JL. Mimosine targets serine hydroxymethyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1996 Feb 2;271(5):2548–2556. [PubMed]
  • Renwick SB, Snell K, Baumann U. The crystal structure of human cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase: a target for cancer chemotherapy. Structure. 1998 Sep 15;6(9):1105–1116. [PubMed]
  • Trakatellis A, Dimitriadou A, Exindari M, Christodoulou D, Malissiovas N, Antoniadis A, Haitoglou K. Effect of combination of deoxypyridoxine with known anti-proliferative or immunosuppressive agents on lymphocyte serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Postgrad Med J. 1994;70 (Suppl 1):S89–S92. [PubMed]
  • Surtees R, Bowron A, Leonard J. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma total homocysteine and related metabolites in children with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency: the effect of treatment. Pediatr Res. 1997 Nov;42(5):577–582. [PubMed]
  • Dudman NP, Tyrrell PA, Wilcken DE. Homocysteinemia: depressed plasma serine levels. Metabolism. 1987 Feb;36(2):198–201. [PubMed]
  • Ristoff E, Larsson A. Patients with genetic defects in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. Chem Biol Interact. 1998 Apr 24;111-112:113–121. [PubMed]
  • Grimble RF, Grimble GK. Immunonutrition: role of sulfur amino acids, related amino acids, and polyamines. Nutrition. 1998 Jul-Aug;14(7-8):605–610. [PubMed]
  • Ceccon M, Giusti P, Facci L, Borin G, Imbesi M, Floreani M, Skaper SD. Intracellular glutathione levels determine cerebellar granule neuron sensitivity to excitotoxic injury by kainic acid. Brain Res. 2000 Apr 17;862(1-2):83–89. [PubMed]
  • Wüllner U, Seyfried J, Groscurth P, Beinroth S, Winter S, Gleichmann M, Heneka M, Löschmann P, Schulz JB, Weller M, et al. Glutathione depletion and neuronal cell death: the role of reactive oxygen intermediates and mitochondrial function. Brain Res. 1999 Apr 24;826(1):53–62. [PubMed]
  • Dringen R, Pfeiffer B, Hamprecht B. Synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione in neurons: supply by astrocytes of CysGly as precursor for neuronal glutathione. J Neurosci. 1999 Jan 15;19(2):562–569. [PubMed]
  • Lima L. Taurine and its trophic effects in the retina. Neurochem Res. 1999 Nov;24(11):1333–1338. [PubMed]
  • Schousboe A, Pasantes-Morales H. Role of taurine in neural cell volume regulation. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992;70 (Suppl):S356–S361. [PubMed]
  • Morán J, Maar T, Gegelashvili G, Bock E, Schousboe A, Pasantes-Morales H. Taurine deficiency and neuronal migration. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;403:519–526. [PubMed]
  • Tyurina YY, Shvedova AA, Kawai K, Tyurin VA, Kommineni C, Quinn PJ, Schor NF, Fabisiak JP, Kagan VE. Phospholipid signaling in apoptosis: peroxidation and externalization of phosphatidylserine. Toxicology. 2000 Aug 7;148(2-3):93–101. [PubMed]
  • Perry DK, Hannun YA. The role of ceramide in cell signaling. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Dec 8;1436(1-2):233–243. [PubMed]
  • Hannun YA, Bell RM. Functions of sphingolipids and sphingolipid breakdown products in cellular regulation. Science. 1989 Jan 27;243(4890):500–507. [PubMed]
  • Hannun YA. Functions of ceramide in coordinating cellular responses to stress. Science. 1996 Dec 13;274(5294):1855–1859. [PubMed]
  • Kolesnick RN, Goñi FM, Alonso A. Compartmentalization of ceramide signaling: physical foundations and biological effects. J Cell Physiol. 2000 Sep;184(3):285–300. [PubMed]
  • Kolesnick RN, Krönke M. Regulation of ceramide production and apoptosis. Annu Rev Physiol. 1998;60:643–665. [PubMed]
  • Hanada K, Nishijima M, Kiso M, Hasegawa A, Fujita S, Ogawa T, Akamatsu Y. Sphingolipids are essential for the growth of Chinese hamster ovary cells. Restoration of the growth of a mutant defective in sphingoid base biosynthesis by exogenous sphingolipids. J Biol Chem. 1992 Nov 25;267(33):23527–23533. [PubMed]
  • Buede R, Rinker-Schaffer C, Pinto WJ, Lester RL, Dickson RC. Cloning and characterization of LCB1, a Saccharomyces gene required for biosynthesis of the long-chain base component of sphingolipids. J Bacteriol. 1991 Jul;173(14):4325–4332. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Furuya S, Mitoma J, Makino A, Hirabayashi Y. Ceramide and its interconvertible metabolite sphingosine function as indispensable lipid factors involved in survival and dendritic differentiation of cerebellar Purkinje cells. J Neurochem. 1998 Jul;71(1):366–377. [PubMed]
  • de Koning TJ, Jaeken J, Pineda M, Van Maldergem L, Poll-The BT, van der Knaap MS. Hypomyelination and reversible white matter attenuation in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency. Neuropediatrics. 2000 Dec;31(6):287–292. [PubMed]
  • Johnson JW, Ascher P. Glycine potentiates the NMDA response in cultured mouse brain neurons. Nature. 1987 Feb 5;325(6104):529–531. [PubMed]
  • Matsui T, Sekiguchi M, Hashimoto A, Tomita U, Nishikawa T, Wada K. Functional comparison of D-serine and glycine in rodents: the effect on cloned NMDA receptors and the extracellular concentration. J Neurochem. 1995 Jul;65(1):454–458. [PubMed]
  • Mothet JP, Parent AT, Wolosker H, Brady RO, Jr, Linden DJ, Ferris CD, Rogawski MA, Snyder SH. D-serine is an endogenous ligand for the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Apr 25;97(9):4926–4931. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wolosker H, Blackshaw S, Snyder SH. Serine racemase: a glial enzyme synthesizing D-serine to regulate glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Nov 9;96(23):13409–13414. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wolosker H, Sheth KN, Takahashi M, Mothet JP, Brady RO, Jr, Ferris CD, Snyder SH. Purification of serine racemase: biosynthesis of the neuromodulator D-serine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jan 19;96(2):721–725. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krebs HA. Metabolism of amino-acids: Deamination of amino-acids. Biochem J. 1935 Jul;29(7):1620–1644. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • de Koning TJ, Duran M, Dorland L, Gooskens R, Van Schaftingen E, Jaeken J, Blau N, Berger R, Poll-The BT. Beneficial effects of L-serine and glycine in the management of seizures in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency. Ann Neurol. 1998 Aug;44(2):261–265. [PubMed]
  • Moores RR, Jr, Rietberg CC, Battaglia FC, Fennessey PV, Meschia G. Metabolism and transport of maternal serine by the ovine placenta: glycine production and absence of serine transport into the fetus. Pediatr Res. 1993 Jun;33(6):590–594. [PubMed]
  • Cetin I, Fennessey PV, Sparks JW, Meschia G, Battaglia FC. Fetal serine fluxes across fetal liver, hindlimb, and placenta in late gestation. Am J Physiol. 1992 Oct;263(4 Pt 1):E786–E793. [PubMed]
  • Cetin I, Marconi AM, Baggiani AM, Buscaglia M, Pardi G, Fennessey PV, Battaglia FC. In vivo placental transport of glycine and leucine in human pregnancies. Pediatr Res. 1995 May;37(5):571–575. [PubMed]
  • Cetin I, Fennessey PV, Quick AN, Jr, Marconi AM, Meschia G, Battaglia FC, Sparks JW. Glycine turnover and oxidation and hepatic serine synthesis from glycine in fetal lambs. Am J Physiol. 1991 Mar;260(3 Pt 1):E371–E378. [PubMed]
  • Bismut H, Poggi-Bach J, Plas C. Consumption and production of amino acids by insulin-responsive cultured fetal rat hepatocytes: the particular case of serine. Biol Neonate. 1992;62(1):37–46. [PubMed]
  • Cetin I, Corbetta C, Sereni LP, Marconi AM, Bozzetti P, Pardi G, Battaglia FC. Umbilical amino acid concentrations in normal and growth-retarded fetuses sampled in utero by cordocentesis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Jan;162(1):253–261. [PubMed]
  • Cetin I, Marconi AM, Bozzetti P, Sereni LP, Corbetta C, Pardi G, Battaglia FC. Umbilical amino acid concentrations in appropriate and small for gestational age infants: a biochemical difference present in utero. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Jan;158(1):120–126. [PubMed]
  • Huether G, Lajtha A. Changes in free amino acid concentrations in serum, brain, and CSF throughout embryogenesis. Neurochem Res. 1991 Feb;16(2):145–150. [PubMed]
  • Smith QR, Momma S, Aoyagi M, Rapoport SI. Kinetics of neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier. J Neurochem. 1987 Nov;49(5):1651–1658. [PubMed]
  • Bridgers WF. The biosynthesis of serine in mouse brain extracts. J Biol Chem. 1965 Dec;240(12):4591–4597. [PubMed]
  • Savoca R, Ziegler U, Sonderegger P. Effects of L-serine on neurons in vitro. J Neurosci Methods. 1995 Sep-Oct;61(1-2):159–167. [PubMed]
  • Mitoma J, Furuya S, Hirabayashi Y. A novel metabolic communication between neurons and astrocytes: non-essential amino acid L-serine released from astrocytes is essential for developing hippocampal neurons. Neurosci Res. 1998 Feb;30(2):195–199. [PubMed]
  • Furuya S, Tabata T, Mitoma J, Yamada K, Yamasaki M, Makino A, Yamamoto T, Watanabe M, Kano M, Hirabayashi Y. L-serine and glycine serve as major astroglia-derived trophic factors for cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Oct 10;97(21):11528–11533. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sato K, Yoshida S, Fujiwara K, Tada K, Tohyama M. Glycine cleavage system in astrocytes. Brain Res. 1991 Dec 13;567(1):64–70. [PubMed]
  • Nagata Y, Horiike K, Maeda T. Distribution of free D-serine in vertebrate brains. Brain Res. 1994 Jan 21;634(2):291–295. [PubMed]
  • Martinez-Hernandez A, Bell KP, Norenberg MD. Glutamine synthetase: glial localization in brain. Science. 1977 Mar 25;195(4284):1356–1358. [PubMed]
  • Snyder SH, Kim PM. D-amino acids as putative neurotransmitters: focus on D-serine. Neurochem Res. 2000 May;25(5):553–560. [PubMed]
  • Legendre P. The glycinergic inhibitory synapse. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2001 May;58(5-6):760–793. [PubMed]
  • Sugiura N, Patel RG, Corriveau RA. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors regulate a group of transiently expressed genes in the developing brain. J Biol Chem. 2001 Apr 27;276(17):14257–14263. [PubMed]
  • Hashimoto A, Kumashiro S, Nishikawa T, Oka T, Takahashi K, Mito T, Takashima S, Doi N, Mizutani Y, Yamazaki T, et al. Embryonic development and postnatal changes in free D-aspartate and D-serine in the human prefrontal cortex. J Neurochem. 1993 Jul;61(1):348–351. [PubMed]
  • Hashimoto A, Oka T. Free D-aspartate and D-serine in the mammalian brain and periphery. Prog Neurobiol. 1997 Jul;52(4):325–353. [PubMed]
  • Schell MJ, Brady RO, Jr, Molliver ME, Snyder SH. D-serine as a neuromodulator: regional and developmental localizations in rat brain glia resemble NMDA receptors. J Neurosci. 1997 Mar 1;17(5):1604–1615. [PubMed]
  • Mitoma J, Kasama T, Furuya S, Hirabayashi Y. Occurrence of an unusual phospholipid, phosphatidyl-L-threonine, in cultured hippocampal neurons. Exogenous L-serine is required for the synthesis of neuronal phosphatidyl-L-serine and sphingolipids. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 31;273(31):19363–19366. [PubMed]
  • Hanada K, Hara T, Nishijima M. D-Serine inhibits serine palmitoyltransferase, the enzyme catalyzing the initial step of sphingolipid biosynthesis. FEBS Lett. 2000 May 26;474(1):63–65. [PubMed]
  • Mori Kohji, Ozaki Emi, Zhang Bo, Yang Lihua, Yokoyama Akiko, Takeda Ikuko, Maeda Nobuji, Sakanaka Masahiro, Tanaka Junya. Effects of norepinephrine on rat cultured microglial cells that express alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2 adrenergic receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2002 Nov;43(6):1026–1034. [PubMed]
  • Cook Silas P, Galve-Roperh Ismael, Martínez del Pozo Alvaro, Rodríguez-Crespo Ignacio. Direct calcium binding results in activation of brain serine racemase. J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 2;277(31):27782–27792. [PubMed]
  • Smith I. The natural history of phenylketonuria. Arch Dis Child. 1971 Dec;46(250):879–879. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tada K, Kure S, Takayanagi M, Kume A, Narisawa K. Non-ketotic hyperglycinemia: a life-threatening disorder in the neonate. Early Hum Dev. 1992 Jun-Jul;29(1-3):75–81. [PubMed]
  • Devor EJ, Waziri R. A familial/genetic study of plasma serine and glycine concentrations. Biol Psychiatry. 1993 Aug 15;34(4):221–225. [PubMed]
  • Jaeken J, Detheux M, Van Maldergem L, Frijns JP, Alliet P, Foulon M, Carchon H, Van Schaftingen E. 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency and 3-phosphoserine phosphatase deficiency: inborn errors of serine biosynthesis. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1996;19(2):223–226. [PubMed]
  • Pepplinkhuizen L, Bruinvels J, Blom W, Moleman P. Schizophrenia-like psychosis caused by a metabolic disorder. Lancet. 1980 Mar 1;1(8166):454–456. [PubMed]
  • Waziri R, Wilcox J, Sherman AD, Mott J. Serine metabolism and psychosis. Psychiatry Res. 1984 Jun;12(2):121–136. [PubMed]
  • Waziri R, Wilson R, Sherman AD. Plasma serine to cysteine ratio as a biological marker for psychosis. Br J Psychiatry. 1983 Jul;143:69–73. [PubMed]
  • Kurumaji A, Watanabe A, Kumashiro S, Semba J, Toru M. A postmortem study of glycine and its potential precursors in chronic schizophrenics. Neurochem Int. 1996 Sep;29(3):239–245. [PubMed]
  • Waziri R, Baruah S, Sherman AD. Abnormal serine-glycine metabolism in the brains of schizophrenics. Schizophr Res. 1993 Jan;8(3):233–243. [PubMed]
  • Baruah S, Waziri R, Sherman A. Neuroleptic effects on serine and glycine metabolism. Biol Psychiatry. 1993 Oct 15;34(8):544–550. [PubMed]
  • Waziri R, Baruah S. A hyperglycinergic rat model for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia: preliminary findings. Schizophr Res. 1999 Jun 22;37(3):205–215. [PubMed]
  • Carl GF, Brogan MP, Young BK. Is plasma serine a marker for psychosis? Biol Psychiatry. 1992 Jun 1;31(11):1130–1135. [PubMed]
  • Perry TL, Hansen S. Interconversion of serine and glycine is normal in psychotic patients. Psychiatry Res. 1985 Jun;15(2):109–113. [PubMed]
  • Goff DC, Tsai G, Levitt J, Amico E, Manoach D, Schoenfeld DA, Hayden DL, McCarley R, Coyle JT. A placebo-controlled trial of D-cycloserine added to conventional neuroleptics in patients with schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 Jan;56(1):21–27. [PubMed]
  • Tsai GE, Yang P, Chung LC, Tsai IC, Tsai CW, Coyle JT. D-serine added to clozapine for the treatment of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1999 Nov;156(11):1822–1825. [PubMed]
  • Heresco-Levy U, Javitt DC, Ermilov M, Mordel C, Silipo G, Lichtenstein M. Efficacy of high-dose glycine in the treatment of enduring negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 Jan;56(1):29–36. [PubMed]
  • Chumakov Ilya, Blumenfeld Marta, Guerassimenko Oxana, Cavarec Laurent, Palicio Marta, Abderrahim Hadi, Bougueleret Lydie, Barry Caroline, Tanaka Hiroaki, La Rosa Philippe, et al. Genetic and physiological data implicating the new human gene G72 and the gene for D-amino acid oxidase in schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 15;99(21):13675–13680. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jaeken J, Detheux M, Van Maldergem L, Foulon M, Carchon H, Van Schaftingen E. 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency: an inborn error of serine biosynthesis. Arch Dis Child. 1996 Jun;74(6):542–545. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pineda M, Vilaseca MA, Artuch R, Santos S, García González MM, Aracil A, Van Schaftingen E, Jaeken J. 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient with West syndrome. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2000 Sep;42(9):629–633. [PubMed]
  • De Koning TJ, Duran M, Van Maldergem L, Pineda M, Dorland L, Gooskens R, Jaeken J, Poll-The BT. Congenital microcephaly and seizures due to 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency: outcome of treatment with amino acids. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2002 May;25(2):119–125. [PubMed]
  • Achouri Y, Rider MH, Schaftingen EV, Robbi M. Cloning, sequencing and expression of rat liver 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Biochem J. 1997 Apr 15;323(Pt 2):365–370. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jaeken J, Detheux M, Fryns JP, Collet JF, Alliet P, Van Schaftingen E. Phosphoserine phosphatase deficiency in a patient with Williams syndrome. J Med Genet. 1997 Jul;34(7):594–596. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Quackenbush EJ, Kraemer KH, Gahl WA, Schirch V, Whiteman DA, Levine K, Levy HL. Hypoglycinaemia and psychomotor delay in a child with xeroderma pigmentosum. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1999 Dec;22(8):915–924. [PubMed]

Articles from Biochemical Journal are provided here courtesy of The Biochemical Society

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...