• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of biochemjBJ Latest papers and much more!
Biochem J. Apr 15, 2001; 355(Pt 2): 481–488.
PMCID: PMC1221761

Differential involvement of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors alpha and delta in fibrate and fatty-acid-mediated inductions of the gene encoding liver fatty-acid-binding protein in the liver and the small intestine.

Abstract

Liver fatty-acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is a cytoplasmic polypeptide that binds with strong affinity especially to long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). It is highly expressed in both the liver and small intestine, where it is thought to have an essential role in the control of the cellular fatty acid (FA) flux. Because expression of the gene encoding L-FABP is increased by both fibrate hypolipidaemic drugs and LCFAs, it seems to be under the control of transcription factors, termed peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), activated by fibrate or FAs. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which these regulations take place remain to be fully substantiated. Using transfection assays, we found that the different PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta) are able to mediate the up-regulation by FAs of the gene encoding L-FABP in vitro. Through analysis of LCFA- and fibrate-mediated effects on L-FABP mRNA levels in wild-type and PPARalpha-null mice, we have found that PPARalpha in the intestine does not constitute a dominant regulator of L-FABP gene expression, in contrast with what is known in the liver. Only the PPARdelta/alpha agonist GW2433 is able to up-regulate the gene encoding L-FABP in the intestine of PPARalpha-null mice. These findings demonstrate that PPARdelta can act as a fibrate/FA-activated receptor in tissues in which it is highly expressed and that L-FABP is a PPARdelta target gene in the small intestine. We propose that PPARdelta contributes to metabolic adaptation of the small intestine to changes in the lipid content of the diet.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (254K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Richieri GV, Ogata RT, Kleinfeld AM. Equilibrium constants for the binding of fatty acids with fatty acid-binding proteins from adipocyte, intestine, heart, and liver measured with the fluorescent probe ADIFAB. J Biol Chem. 1994 Sep 30;269(39):23918–23930. [PubMed]
  • Glatz JF, Börchers T, Spener F, van der Vusse GJ. Fatty acids in cell signalling: modulation by lipid binding proteins. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1995 Feb-Mar;52(2-3):121–127. [PubMed]
  • Niot I, Poirier H, Besnard P. Regulation of gene expression by fatty acids: special reference to fatty acid-binding protein (FABP). Biochimie. 1997 Feb-Mar;79(2-3):129–133. [PubMed]
  • Besnard P, Mallordy A, Carlier H. Transcriptional induction of the fatty acid binding protein gene in mouse liver by bezafibrate. FEBS Lett. 1993 Jul 26;327(2):219–223. [PubMed]
  • Mallordy A, Poirier H, Besnard P, Niot I, Carlier H. Evidence for transcriptional induction of the liver fatty-acid-binding-protein gene by bezafibrate in the small intestine. Eur J Biochem. 1995 Feb 1;227(3):801–807. [PubMed]
  • Meunier-Durmort C, Poirier H, Niot I, Forest C, Besnard P. Up-regulation of the expression of the gene for liver fatty acid-binding protein by long-chain fatty acids. Biochem J. 1996 Oct 15;319(Pt 2):483–487. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Poirier H, Niot I, Degrace P, Monnot MC, Bernard A, Besnard P. Fatty acid regulation of fatty acid-binding protein expression in the small intestine. Am J Physiol. 1997 Aug;273(2 Pt 1):G289–G295. [PubMed]
  • Issemann I, Green S. Activation of a member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily by peroxisome proliferators. Nature. 1990 Oct 18;347(6294):645–650. [PubMed]
  • Schoonjans K, Staels B, Auwerx J. Role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in mediating the effects of fibrates and fatty acids on gene expression. J Lipid Res. 1996 May;37(5):907–925. [PubMed]
  • Issemann I, Prince R, Tugwood J, Green S. A role for fatty acids and liver fatty acid binding protein in peroxisome proliferation? Biochem Soc Trans. 1992 Nov;20(4):824–827. [PubMed]
  • Simon TC, Roth KA, Gordon JI. Use of transgenic mice to map cis-acting elements in the liver fatty acid-binding protein gene (Fabpl) that regulate its cell lineage-specific, differentiation-dependent, and spatial patterns of expression in the gut epithelium and in the liver acinus. J Biol Chem. 1993 Aug 25;268(24):18345–18358. [PubMed]
  • Juge-Aubry C, Pernin A, Favez T, Burger AG, Wahli W, Meier CA, Desvergne B. DNA binding properties of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes on various natural peroxisome proliferator response elements. Importance of the 5'-flanking region. J Biol Chem. 1997 Oct 3;272(40):25252–25259. [PubMed]
  • Poirier H, Braissant O, Niot I, Wahli W, Besnard P. 9-cis-retinoic acid enhances fatty acid-induced expression of the liver fatty acid-binding protein gene. FEBS Lett. 1997 Aug 4;412(3):480–484. [PubMed]
  • Lee SS, Pineau T, Drago J, Lee EJ, Owens JW, Kroetz DL, Fernandez-Salguero PM, Westphal H, Gonzalez FJ. Targeted disruption of the alpha isoform of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene in mice results in abolishment of the pleiotropic effects of peroxisome proliferators. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Jun;15(6):3012–3022. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Xu HE, Lambert MH, Montana VG, Parks DJ, Blanchard SG, Brown PJ, Sternbach DD, Lehmann JM, Wisely GB, Willson TM, et al. Molecular recognition of fatty acids by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Mol Cell. 1999 Mar;3(3):397–403. [PubMed]
  • Kliewer SA, Sundseth SS, Jones SA, Brown PJ, Wisely GB, Koble CS, Devchand P, Wahli W, Willson TM, Lenhard JM, et al. Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 29;94(9):4318–4323. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krey G, Braissant O, L'Horset F, Kalkhoven E, Perroud M, Parker MG, Wahli W. Fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic agents identified as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors by coactivator-dependent receptor ligand assay. Mol Endocrinol. 1997 Jun;11(6):779–791. [PubMed]
  • Braissant O, Foufelle F, Scotto C, Dauça M, Wahli W. Differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs): tissue distribution of PPAR-alpha, -beta, and -gamma in the adult rat. Endocrinology. 1996 Jan;137(1):354–366. [PubMed]
  • Mallordy A, Besnard P, Carlier H. Research of an in vitro model to study the expression of fatty acid-binding proteins in the small intestine. Mol Cell Biochem. 1993 Jun 9;123(1-2):85–92. [PubMed]
  • Chomczynski P, Sacchi N. Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem. 1987 Apr;162(1):156–159. [PubMed]
  • Gordon JI, Alpers DH, Ockner RK, Strauss AW. The nucleotide sequence of rat liver fatty acid binding protein mRNA. J Biol Chem. 1983 Mar 10;258(5):3356–3363. [PubMed]
  • Amri EZ, Bonino F, Ailhaud G, Abumrad NA, Grimaldi PA. Cloning of a protein that mediates transcriptional effects of fatty acids in preadipocytes. Homology to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. J Biol Chem. 1995 Feb 3;270(5):2367–2371. [PubMed]
  • Alonso S, Minty A, Bourlet Y, Buckingham M. Comparison of three actin-coding sequences in the mouse; evolutionary relationships between the actin genes of warm-blooded vertebrates. J Mol Evol. 1986;23(1):11–22. [PubMed]
  • Sweetser DA, Birkenmeier EH, Hoppe PC, McKeel DW, Gordon JI. Mechanisms underlying generation of gradients in gene expression within the intestine: an analysis using transgenic mice containing fatty acid binding protein-human growth hormone fusion genes. Genes Dev. 1988 Oct;2(10):1318–1332. [PubMed]
  • IJpenberg A, Jeannin E, Wahli W, Desvergne B. Polarity and specific sequence requirements of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)/retinoid X receptor heterodimer binding to DNA. A functional analysis of the malic enzyme gene PPAR response element. J Biol Chem. 1997 Aug 8;272(32):20108–20117. [PubMed]
  • Kliewer SA, Forman BM, Blumberg B, Ong ES, Borgmeyer U, Mangelsdorf DJ, Umesono K, Evans RM. Differential expression and activation of a family of murine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jul 19;91(15):7355–7359. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dreyer C, Keller H, Mahfoudi A, Laudet V, Krey G, Wahli W. Positive regulation of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway by fatty acids through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). Biol Cell. 1993;77(1):67–76. [PubMed]
  • Wolfrum C, Ellinghaus P, Fobker M, Seedorf U, Assmann G, Börchers T, Spener F. Phytanic acid is ligand and transcriptional activator of murine liver fatty acid binding protein. J Lipid Res. 1999 Apr;40(4):708–714. [PubMed]
  • He TC, Chan TA, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW. PPARdelta is an APC-regulated target of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Cell. 1999 Oct 29;99(3):335–345. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brown PJ, Smith-Oliver TA, Charifson PS, Tomkinson NC, Fivush AM, Sternbach DD, Wade LE, Orband-Miller L, Parks DJ, Blanchard SG, et al. Identification of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands from a biased chemical library. Chem Biol. 1997 Dec;4(12):909–918. [PubMed]
  • Bass NM, Barker ME, Manning JA, Jones AL, Ockner RK. Acinar heterogeneity of fatty acid binding protein expression in the livers of male, female and clofibrate-treated rats. Hepatology. 1989 Jan;9(1):12–21. [PubMed]
  • Berger J, Leibowitz MD, Doebber TW, Elbrecht A, Zhang B, Zhou G, Biswas C, Cullinan CA, Hayes NS, Li Y, et al. Novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and PPARdelta ligands produce distinct biological effects. J Biol Chem. 1999 Mar 5;274(10):6718–6725. [PubMed]
  • Fan LQ, Cattley RC, Corton JC. Tissue-specific induction of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type IV by peroxisome proliferator chemicals is dependent on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. J Endocrinol. 1998 Aug;158(2):237–246. [PubMed]
  • Spiegelman BM, Flier JS. Adipogenesis and obesity: rounding out the big picture. Cell. 1996 Nov 1;87(3):377–389. [PubMed]
  • Martin G, Schoonjans K, Staels B, Auwerx J. PPARgamma activators improve glucose homeostasis by stimulating fatty acid uptake in the adipocytes. Atherosclerosis. 1998 Apr;137 (Suppl):S75–S80. [PubMed]
  • Basu-Modak S, Braissant O, Escher P, Desvergne B, Honegger P, Wahli W. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta regulates acyl-CoA synthetase 2 in reaggregated rat brain cell cultures. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 10;274(50):35881–35888. [PubMed]
  • Murphy EJ, Prows DR, Jefferson JR, Schroeder F. Liver fatty acid-binding protein expression in transfected fibroblasts stimulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996 Jun 11;1301(3):191–198. [PubMed]
  • Wolfrum C, Buhlmann C, Rolf B, Börchers T, Spener F. Variation of liver-type fatty acid binding protein content in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 by peroxisome proliferators and antisense RNA affects the rate of fatty acid uptake. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Feb 25;1437(2):194–201. [PubMed]
  • Peters JM, Lee SS, Li W, Ward JM, Gavrilova O, Everett C, Reitman ML, Hudson LD, Gonzalez FJ. Growth, adipose, brain, and skin alterations resulting from targeted disruption of the mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta(delta). Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Jul;20(14):5119–5128. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Biochemical Journal are provided here courtesy of The Biochemical Society

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...