• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of biochemjBJ Latest papers and much more!
Biochem J. Jun 15, 2000; 348(Pt 3): 481–495.
PMCID: PMC1221089

Retinoid-binding proteins: mediators of retinoid action.

Abstract

Active vitamin A metabolites, known as retinoids, are essential for multiple physiological processes, ranging from vision to embryonic development. These small hydrophobic compounds associate in vivo with soluble proteins that are present in a variety of cells and in particular extracellular compartments, and which bind different types of retinoids with high selectivity and affinity. Traditionally, retinoid-binding proteins were viewed as transport proteins that act by solubilizing and protecting their labile ligands in aqueous spaces. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that, in addition to this general role, retinoid-binding proteins have diverse and specific functions in regulating the disposition, metabolism and activities of retinoids. Some retinoid-binding proteins appear to act by sequestering their ligands, thereby generating concentration gradients that allow cells to take up retinoids from extracellular pools and metabolic steps to proceed in energetically unfavourable directions. Other retinoid-binding proteins regulate the metabolic fates of their ligands by protecting them from some enzymes while allowing metabolism by others. In these cases, delivery of a bound retinoid from the binding protein to the 'correct' enzyme is likely to be mediated by direct and specific interactions between the two proteins. One retinoid-binding protein was reported to enhance the ability of its ligand to regulate gene transcription by directly delivering this retinoid to the transcription factor that is activated by it. 'Channelling' of retinoids between their corresponding binding protein and a particular protein target thus seems to be a general theme through which some retinoid-binding proteins exert their effects.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (378K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Flower DR. The lipocalin protein family: structure and function. Biochem J. 1996 Aug 15;318(Pt 1):1–14. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Newcomer ME, Jones TA, Aqvist J, Sundelin J, Eriksson U, Rask L, Peterson PA. The three-dimensional structure of retinol-binding protein. EMBO J. 1984 Jul;3(7):1451–1454. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Noy N, Xu ZJ. Thermodynamic parameters of the binding of retinol to binding proteins and to membranes. Biochemistry. 1990 Apr 24;29(16):3888–3892. [PubMed]
  • Monaco HL, Mancia F, Rizzi M, Coda A. Crystallization of the macromolecular complex transthyretin-retinol-binding protein. J Mol Biol. 1994 Nov 18;244(1):110–113. [PubMed]
  • Naylor HM, Newcomer ME. The structure of human retinol-binding protein (RBP) with its carrier protein transthyretin reveals an interaction with the carboxy terminus of RBP. Biochemistry. 1999 Mar 2;38(9):2647–2653. [PubMed]
  • Thompson JR, Bratt JM, Banaszak LJ. Crystal structure of cellular retinoic acid binding protein I shows increased access to the binding cavity due to formation of an intermolecular beta-sheet. J Mol Biol. 1995 Sep 29;252(4):433–446. [PubMed]
  • Wang L, Li Y, Abildgaard F, Markley JL, Yan H. NMR solution structure of type II human cellular retinoic acid binding protein: implications for ligand binding. Biochemistry. 1998 Sep 15;37(37):12727–12736. [PubMed]
  • Kleywegt GJ, Bergfors T, Senn H, Le Motte P, Gsell B, Shudo K, Jones TA. Crystal structures of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins I and II in complex with all-trans-retinoic acid and a synthetic retinoid. Structure. 1994 Dec 15;2(12):1241–1258. [PubMed]
  • Chen X, Tordova M, Gilliland GL, Wang L, Li Y, Yan H, Ji X. Crystal structure of apo-cellular retinoic acid-binding protein type II (R111M) suggests a mechanism of ligand entry. J Mol Biol. 1998 May 8;278(3):641–653. [PubMed]
  • Lu J, Lin CL, Tang C, Ponder JW, Kao JL, Cistola DP, Li E. The structure and dynamics of rat apo-cellular retinol-binding protein II in solution: comparison with the X-ray structure. J Mol Biol. 1999 Mar 5;286(4):1179–1195. [PubMed]
  • Sato Y, Arai H, Miyata A, Tokita S, Yamamoto K, Tanabe T, Inoue K. Primary structure of alpha-tocopherol transfer protein from rat liver. Homology with cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1993 Aug 25;268(24):17705–17710. [PubMed]
  • Salama SR, Cleves AE, Malehorn DE, Whitters EA, Bankaitis VA. Cloning and characterization of Kluyveromyces lactis SEC14, a gene whose product stimulates Golgi secretory function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1990 Aug;172(8):4510–4521. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Crabb JW, Nie Z, Chen Y, Hulmes JD, West KA, Kapron JT, Ruuska SE, Noy N, Saari JC. Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein ligand interactions. Gln-210 and Lys-221 are in the retinoid binding pocket. J Biol Chem. 1998 Aug 14;273(33):20712–20720. [PubMed]
  • Saari JC, Teller DC, Crabb JW, Bredberg L. Properties of an interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein from bovine retina. J Biol Chem. 1985 Jan 10;260(1):195–201. [PubMed]
  • Bazan NG, Reddy TS, Redmond TM, Wiggert B, Chader GJ. Endogenous fatty acids are covalently and noncovalently bound to interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein in the monkey retina. J Biol Chem. 1985 Nov 5;260(25):13677–13680. [PubMed]
  • Chen Y, Saari JC, Noy N. Interactions of all-trans-retinol and long-chain fatty acids with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. Biochemistry. 1993 Oct 26;32(42):11311–11318. [PubMed]
  • Chen Y, Houghton LA, Brenna JT, Noy N. Docosahexaenoic acid modulates the interactions of the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein with 11-cis-retinal. J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 23;271(34):20507–20515. [PubMed]
  • Chen Y, Noy N. Retinoid specificity of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. Biochemistry. 1994 Sep 6;33(35):10658–10665. [PubMed]
  • Tschanz CL, Noy N. Binding of retinol in both retinoid-binding sites of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is stabilized mainly by hydrophobic interactions. J Biol Chem. 1997 Nov 28;272(48):30201–30207. [PubMed]
  • Fong SL, Bridges CD. Internal quadruplication in the structure of human interstitial retinol-binding protein deduced from its cloned cDNA. J Biol Chem. 1988 Oct 25;263(30):15330–15334. [PubMed]
  • Borst DE, Redmond TM, Elser JE, Gonda MA, Wiggert B, Chader GJ, Nickerson JM. Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. Gene characterization, protein repeat structure, and its evolution. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jan 15;264(2):1115–1123. [PubMed]
  • Bridges CD, Liou GI, Alvarez RA, Landers RA, Landry AM, Jr, Fong SL. Distribution of interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP) in the vertebrates. J Exp Zool. 1986 Sep;239(3):335–346. [PubMed]
  • Keiler KC, Sauer RT. Identification of active site residues of the Tsp protease. J Biol Chem. 1995 Dec 1;270(48):28864–28868. [PubMed]
  • Reppe S, Smeland S, Moskaug JO, Blomhoff R. Retinol-induced secretion of human retinol-binding protein in yeast. FEBS Lett. 1998 May 8;427(2):213–219. [PubMed]
  • Vieira AV, Schneider WJ. Transport and uptake of retinol during chicken oocyte growth. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Sep 8;1169(3):250–256. [PubMed]
  • Malaba L, Kindberg GM, Norum KR, Berg T, Blomhoff R. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of retinol-binding protein by liver parenchymal cells: interference by radioactive iodination. Biochem J. 1993 Apr 1;291(Pt 1):187–191. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Heller J. Interactions of plasma retinol-binding protein with its receptor. Specific binding of bovine and human retinol-binding protein to pigment epithelium cells from bovine eyes. J Biol Chem. 1975 May 25;250(10):3613–3619. [PubMed]
  • Rask L, Peterson PA. In vitro uptake of vitamin A from the retinol-binding plasma protein to mucosal epithelial cells from the monkey's small intestine. J Biol Chem. 1976 Oct 25;251(20):6360–6366. [PubMed]
  • Rask L, Geijer C, Bill A, Peterson PA. Vitamin A supply of the cornea. Exp Eye Res. 1980 Aug;31(2):201–211. [PubMed]
  • Båvik CO, Peterson A, Eriksson U. Retinol-binding protein mediates uptake of retinol to cultured human keratinocytes. Exp Cell Res. 1995 Feb;216(2):358–362. [PubMed]
  • Båvik CO, Lévy F, Hellman U, Wernstedt C, Eriksson U. The retinal pigment epithelial membrane receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein. Isolation and cDNA cloning of the 63-kDa protein. J Biol Chem. 1993 Sep 25;268(27):20540–20546. [PubMed]
  • Sivaprasadarao A, Boudjelal M, Findlay JB. Solubilization and purification of the retinol-binding protein receptor from human placental membranes. Biochem J. 1994 Aug 15;302(Pt 1):245–251. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sundaram M, Sivaprasadarao A, DeSousa MM, Findlay JB. The transfer of retinol from serum retinol-binding protein to cellular retinol-binding protein is mediated by a membrane receptor. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 6;273(6):3336–3342. [PubMed]
  • Ward SJ, Chambon P, Ong DE, Båvik C. A retinol-binding protein receptor-mediated mechanism for uptake of vitamin A to postimplantation rat embryos. Biol Reprod. 1997 Oct;57(4):751–755. [PubMed]
  • Hamel CP, Tsilou E, Pfeffer BA, Hooks JJ, Detrick B, Redmond TM. Molecular cloning and expression of RPE65, a novel retinal pigment epithelium-specific microsomal protein that is post-transcriptionally regulated in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jul 25;268(21):15751–15757. [PubMed]
  • Nicoletti A, Wong DJ, Kawase K, Gibson LH, Yang-Feng TL, Richards JE, Thompson DA. Molecular characterization of the human gene encoding an abundant 61 kDa protein specific to the retinal pigment epithelium. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Apr;4(4):641–649. [PubMed]
  • Redmond TM, Yu S, Lee E, Bok D, Hamasaki D, Chen N, Goletz P, Ma JX, Crouch RK, Pfeifer K. Rpe65 is necessary for production of 11-cis-vitamin A in the retinal visual cycle. Nat Genet. 1998 Dec;20(4):344–351. [PubMed]
  • Noy N, Xu ZJ. Kinetic parameters of the interactions of retinol with lipid bilayers. Biochemistry. 1990 Apr 24;29(16):3883–3888. [PubMed]
  • Hodam JR, Creek KE. Comparison of the metabolism of retinol delivered to human keratinocytes either bound to serum retinol-binding protein or added directly to the culture medium. Exp Cell Res. 1998 Jan 10;238(1):257–264. [PubMed]
  • Creek KE, St Hilaire P, Hodam JR. A comparison of the uptake, metabolism and biologic effects of retinol delivered to human keratinocytes either free or bound to serum retinol-binding protein. J Nutr. 1993 Feb;123(2 Suppl):356–361. [PubMed]
  • van Bennekum AM, Blaner WS, Seifert-Bock I, Moukides M, Brouwer A, Hendriks HF. Retinol uptake from retinol-binding protein (RBP) by liver parenchymal cells in vitro does not specifically depend on its binding to RBP. Biochemistry. 1993 Feb 23;32(7):1727–1733. [PubMed]
  • Fex G, Johannesson G. Retinol transfer across and between phospholipid bilayer membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988 Oct 6;944(2):249–255. [PubMed]
  • Fex G, Johannesson G. Transfer of retinol from retinol-binding protein complex to liposomes and across liposomal membranes. Methods Enzymol. 1990;189:394–402. [PubMed]
  • Noy N, Xu ZJ. Interactions of retinol with binding proteins: implications for the mechanism of uptake by cells. Biochemistry. 1990 Apr 24;29(16):3878–3883. [PubMed]
  • Quadro L, Blaner WS, Salchow DJ, Vogel S, Piantedosi R, Gouras P, Freeman S, Cosma MP, Colantuoni V, Gottesman ME. Impaired retinal function and vitamin A availability in mice lacking retinol-binding protein. EMBO J. 1999 Sep 1;18(17):4633–4644. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Seeliger MW, Biesalski HK, Wissinger B, Gollnick H, Gielen S, Frank J, Beck S, Zrenner E. Phenotype in retinol deficiency due to a hereditary defect in retinol binding protein synthesis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Jan;40(1):3–11. [PubMed]
  • Biesalski HK, Frank J, Beck SC, Heinrich F, Illek B, Reifen R, Gollnick H, Seeliger MW, Wissinger B, Zrenner E. Biochemical but not clinical vitamin A deficiency results from mutations in the gene for retinol binding protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 May;69(5):931–936. [PubMed]
  • Li E, Demmer LA, Sweetser DA, Ong DE, Gordon JI. Rat cellular retinol-binding protein II: use of a cloned cDNA to define its primary structure, tissue-specific expression, and developmental regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Aug;83(16):5779–5783. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Li E, Norris AW. Structure/function of cytoplasmic vitamin A-binding proteins. Annu Rev Nutr. 1996;16:205–234. [PubMed]
  • MacDonald PN, Ong DE. Binding specificities of cellular retinol-binding protein and cellular retinol-binding protein, type II. J Biol Chem. 1987 Aug 5;262(22):10550–10556. [PubMed]
  • Cowan SW, Newcomer ME, Jones TA. Crystallographic studies on a family of cellular lipophilic transport proteins. Refinement of P2 myelin protein and the structure determination and refinement of cellular retinol-binding protein in complex with all-trans-retinol. J Mol Biol. 1993 Apr 20;230(4):1225–1246. [PubMed]
  • Winter NS, Bratt JM, Banaszak LJ. Crystal structures of holo and apo-cellular retinol-binding protein II. J Mol Biol. 1993 Apr 20;230(4):1247–1259. [PubMed]
  • Ong DE, Chytil F. Cellular retinol-binding protein from rat liver. Purification and characterization. J Biol Chem. 1978 Feb 10;253(3):828–832. [PubMed]
  • Ong DE. A novel retinol-binding protein from rat. Purification and partial characterization. J Biol Chem. 1984 Feb 10;259(3):1476–1482. [PubMed]
  • Eriksson U, Das K, Busch C, Nordlinder H, Rask L, Sundelin J, Sällström J, Peterson PA. Cellular retinol-binding protein. Quantitation and distribution. J Biol Chem. 1984 Nov 10;259(21):13464–13470. [PubMed]
  • Kato M, Kato K, Goodman DS. Immunocytochemical studies on the localization of plasma and of cellular retinol-binding proteins and of transthyretin (prealbumin) in rat liver and kidney. J Cell Biol. 1984 May;98(5):1696–1704. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • De Leeuw AM, Gaur VP, Saari JC, Milam AH. Immunolocalization of cellular retinol-, retinaldehyde- and retinoic acid-binding proteins in rat retina during pre- and postnatal development. J Neurocytol. 1990 Apr;19(2):253–264. [PubMed]
  • Zetterström RH, Simon A, Giacobini MM, Eriksson U, Olson L. Localization of cellular retinoid-binding proteins suggests specific roles for retinoids in the adult central nervous system. Neuroscience. 1994 Oct;62(3):899–918. [PubMed]
  • Wardlaw SA, Bucco RA, Zheng WL, Ong DE. Variable expression of cellular retinol- and cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins in the rat uterus and ovary during the estrous cycle. Biol Reprod. 1997 Jan;56(1):125–132. [PubMed]
  • Crow JA, Ong DE. Cell-specific immunohistochemical localization of a cellular retinol-binding protein (type two) in the small intestine of rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Jul;82(14):4707–4711. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schaefer WH, Kakkad B, Crow JA, Blair IA, Ong DE. Purification, primary structure characterization, and cellular distribution of two forms of cellular retinol-binding protein, type II from adult rat small intestine. J Biol Chem. 1989 Mar 5;264(7):4212–4221. [PubMed]
  • Sapin V, Ward SJ, Bronner S, Chambon P, Dollé P. Differential expression of transcripts encoding retinoid binding proteins and retinoic acid receptors during placentation of the mouse. Dev Dyn. 1997 Feb;208(2):199–210. [PubMed]
  • Wassall SR, Phelps TM, Albrecht MR, Langsford CA, Stillwell W. Electron spin resonance study of the interactions of retinoids with a phospholipid model membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988 Apr 7;939(2):393–402. [PubMed]
  • Dingle JT, Lucy JA. Membrane phenomenons in relation to vitamin A. Proc Nutr Soc. 1965;24(2):170–172. [PubMed]
  • Stillwell W, Ricketts M, Hudson H, Nahmias S. Effect of retinol and retinoic acid on permeability, electrical resistance and phase transition of lipid bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982 Jun 14;688(2):653–659. [PubMed]
  • De Boeck H, Zidovetzki R. NMR study of the interaction of retinoids with phospholipid bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988 Dec 22;946(2):244–252. [PubMed]
  • Mack JP, Lui NS, Roels OA, Anderson OR. The occurrence of vitamin A in biological membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1972 Oct 23;288(1):203–219. [PubMed]
  • Harrison EH, Blaner WS, Goodman DS, Ross AC. Subcellular localization of retinoids, retinoid-binding proteins, and acyl-CoA:retinol acyltransferase in rat liver. J Lipid Res. 1987 Aug;28(8):973–981. [PubMed]
  • Noy N, Blaner WS. Interactions of retinol with binding proteins: studies with rat cellular retinol-binding protein and with rat retinol-binding protein. Biochemistry. 1991 Jul 2;30(26):6380–6386. [PubMed]
  • Duester G. Involvement of alcohol dehydrogenase, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and cytochrome P450 in the control of retinoid signaling by activation of retinoic acid synthesis. Biochemistry. 1996 Sep 24;35(38):12221–12227. [PubMed]
  • Napoli JL, Posch KP, Fiorella PD, Boerman MH. Physiological occurrence, biosynthesis and metabolism of retinoic acid: evidence for roles of cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) and cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP) in the pathway of retinoic acid homeostasis. Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(4-5):131–143. [PubMed]
  • Herr FM, Ong DE. Differential interaction of lecithin-retinol acyltransferase with cellular retinol binding proteins. Biochemistry. 1992 Jul 28;31(29):6748–6755. [PubMed]
  • Boerman MH, Napoli JL. Cholate-independent retinyl ester hydrolysis. Stimulation by Apo-cellular retinol-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1991 Nov 25;266(33):22273–22278. [PubMed]
  • Ghyselinck NB, Båvik C, Sapin V, Mark M, Bonnier D, Hindelang C, Dierich A, Nilsson CB, Håkansson H, Sauvant P, et al. Cellular retinol-binding protein I is essential for vitamin A homeostasis. EMBO J. 1999 Sep 15;18(18):4903–4914. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Posch KC, Boerman MH, Burns RD, Napoli JL. Holocellular retinol binding protein as a substrate for microsomal retinal synthesis. Biochemistry. 1991 Jun 25;30(25):6224–6230. [PubMed]
  • Boerman MH, Napoli JL. Cellular retinol-binding protein-supported retinoic acid synthesis. Relative roles of microsomes and cytosol. J Biol Chem. 1996 Mar 8;271(10):5610–5616. [PubMed]
  • Kakkad BP, Ong DE. Reduction of retinaldehyde bound to cellular retinol-binding protein (type II) by microsomes from rat small intestine. J Biol Chem. 1988 Sep 15;263(26):12916–12919. [PubMed]
  • Shubeita HE, Sambrook JF, McCormick AM. Molecular cloning and analysis of functional cDNA and genomic clones encoding bovine cellular retinoic acid-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Aug;84(16):5645–5649. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nilsson MH, Spurr NK, Saksena P, Busch C, Nordlinder H, Peterson PA, Rask L, Sundelin J. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone corresponding to bovine cellular retinoic-acid-binding protein and chromosomal localization of the corresponding human gene. Eur J Biochem. 1988 Apr 5;173(1):45–51. [PubMed]
  • Stoner CM, Gudas LJ. Mouse cellular retinoic acid binding protein: cloning, complementary DNA sequence, and messenger RNA expression during the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 wild type and RA-3-10 mutant teratocarcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 1989 Mar 15;49(6):1497–1504. [PubMed]
  • Giguère V, Lyn S, Yip P, Siu CH, Amin S. Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding a second cellular retinoic acid-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Aug;87(16):6233–6237. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Aström A, Tavakkol A, Pettersson U, Cromie M, Elder JT, Voorhees JJ. Molecular cloning of two human cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins (CRABP). Retinoic acid-induced expression of CRABP-II but not CRABP-I in adult human skin in vivo and in skin fibroblasts in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1991 Sep 15;266(26):17662–17666. [PubMed]
  • Eller MS, Oleksiak MF, McQuaid TJ, McAfee SG, Gilchrest BA. The molecular cloning and expression of two CRABP cDNAs from human skin. Exp Cell Res. 1992 Feb;198(2):328–336. [PubMed]
  • Zheng WL, Ong DE. Spatial and temporal patterns of expression of cellular retinol-binding protein and cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins in rat uterus during early pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 1998 Apr;58(4):963–970. [PubMed]
  • Yamamoto M, Dräger UC, Ong DE, McCaffery P. Retinoid-binding proteins in the cerebellum and choroid plexus and their relationship to regionalized retinoic acid synthesis and degradation. Eur J Biochem. 1998 Oct 15;257(2):344–350. [PubMed]
  • Lampron C, Rochette-Egly C, Gorry P, Dollé P, Mark M, Lufkin T, LeMeur M, Chambon P. Mice deficient in cellular retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABPII) or in both CRABPI and CRABPII are essentially normal. Development. 1995 Feb;121(2):539–548. [PubMed]
  • Fawcett D, Pasceri P, Fraser R, Colbert M, Rossant J, Giguère V. Postaxial polydactyly in forelimbs of CRABP-II mutant mice. Development. 1995 Mar;121(3):671–679. [PubMed]
  • Eichele G. Retinoids and vertebrate limb pattern formation. Trends Genet. 1989 Aug;5(8):246–251. [PubMed]
  • Takase S, Ong DE, Chytil F. Transfer of retinoic acid from its complex with cellular retinoic acid-binding protein to the nucleus. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1986 Jun;247(2):328–334. [PubMed]
  • Gaub MP, Lutz Y, Ghyselinck NB, Scheuer I, Pfister V, Chambon P, Rochette-Egly C. Nuclear detection of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins I and II with new antibodies. J Histochem Cytochem. 1998 Oct;46(10):1103–1111. [PubMed]
  • Norris AW, Cheng L, Giguère V, Rosenberger M, Li E. Measurement of subnanomolar retinoic acid binding affinities for cellular retinoic acid binding proteins by fluorometric titration. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Nov 16;1209(1):10–18. [PubMed]
  • Dong D, Ruuska SE, Levinthal DJ, Noy N. Distinct roles for cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins I and II in regulating signaling by retinoic acid. J Biol Chem. 1999 Aug 20;274(34):23695–23698. [PubMed]
  • Fiorella PD, Napoli JL. Expression of cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP) in Escherichia coli. Characterization and evidence that holo-CRABP is a substrate in retinoic acid metabolism. J Biol Chem. 1991 Sep 5;266(25):16572–16579. [PubMed]
  • Fujii H, Sato T, Kaneko S, Gotoh O, Fujii-Kuriyama Y, Osawa K, Kato S, Hamada H. Metabolic inactivation of retinoic acid by a novel P450 differentially expressed in developing mouse embryos. EMBO J. 1997 Jul 16;16(14):4163–4173. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • White JA, Beckett-Jones B, Guo YD, Dilworth FJ, Bonasoro J, Jones G, Petkovich M. cDNA cloning of human retinoic acid-metabolizing enzyme (hP450RAI) identifies a novel family of cytochromes P450. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jul 25;272(30):18538–18541. [PubMed]
  • White JA, Guo YD, Baetz K, Beckett-Jones B, Bonasoro J, Hsu KE, Dilworth FJ, Jones G, Petkovich M. Identification of the retinoic acid-inducible all-trans-retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 1996 Nov 22;271(47):29922–29927. [PubMed]
  • Ray WJ, Bain G, Yao M, Gottlieb DI. CYP26, a novel mammalian cytochrome P450, is induced by retinoic acid and defines a new family. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jul 25;272(30):18702–18708. [PubMed]
  • Boylan JF, Gudas LJ. The level of CRABP-I expression influences the amounts and types of all-trans-retinoic acid metabolites in F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells. J Biol Chem. 1992 Oct 25;267(30):21486–21491. [PubMed]
  • Boylan JF, Gudas LJ. Overexpression of the cellular retinoic acid binding protein-I (CRABP-I) results in a reduction in differentiation-specific gene expression in F9 teratocarcinoma cells. J Cell Biol. 1991 Mar;112(5):965–979. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Delva L, Bastie JN, Rochette-Egly C, Kraïba R, Balitrand N, Despouy G, Chambon P, Chomienne C. Physical and functional interactions between cellular retinoic acid binding protein II and the retinoic acid-dependent nuclear complex. Mol Cell Biol. 1999 Oct;19(10):7158–7167. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jing Y, Waxman S, Mira-y-Lopez R. The cellular retinoic acid binding protein II is a positive regulator of retinoic acid signaling in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 1997 May 1;57(9):1668–1672. [PubMed]
  • Vo HP, Crowe DL. Transcriptional regulation of retinoic acid responsive genes by cellular retinoic acid binding protein-II modulates RA mediated tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Anticancer Res. 1998 Jan-Feb;18(1A):217–224. [PubMed]
  • Bucco RA, Zheng WL, Davis JT, Sierra-Rivera E, Osteen KG, Chaudhary AK, Ong DE. Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein(II) presence in rat uterine epithelial cells correlates with their synthesis of retinoic acid. Biochemistry. 1997 Apr 1;36(13):4009–4014. [PubMed]
  • Zheng WL, Bucco RA, Schmitt MC, Wardlaw SA, Ong DE. Localization of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP) II and CRABP in developing rat testis. Endocrinology. 1996 Nov;137(11):5028–5035. [PubMed]
  • Deigner PS, Law WC, Cañada FJ, Rando RR. Membranes as the energy source in the endergonic transformation of vitamin A to 11-cis-retinol. Science. 1989 May 26;244(4907):968–971. [PubMed]
  • Stecher H, Gelb MH, Saari JC, Palczewski K. Preferential release of 11-cis-retinol from retinal pigment epithelial cells in the presence of cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1999 Mar 26;274(13):8577–8585. [PubMed]
  • Saari JC, Bredberg DL. CoA- and non-CoA-dependent retinol esterification in retinal pigment epithelium. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jun 15;263(17):8084–8090. [PubMed]
  • Saari JC, Bredberg DL. Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase in retinal pigment epithelial microsomes. J Biol Chem. 1989 May 25;264(15):8636–8640. [PubMed]
  • Lion F, Rotmans JP, Daemen FJ, Bonting SL. Biochemical aspects of the visual process. XXVII. Stereospecificity of ocular retinol dehydrogenases and the visual cycle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Apr 19;384(2):283–292. [PubMed]
  • Futterman S, Saari JC, Blair S. Occurrence of a binding protein for 11-cis-retinal in retina. J Biol Chem. 1977 May 25;252(10):3267–3271. [PubMed]
  • Saari JC, Bredberg L, Garwin GG. Identification of the endogenous retinoids associated with three cellular retinoid-binding proteins from bovine retina and retinal pigment epithelium. J Biol Chem. 1982 Nov 25;257(22):13329–13333. [PubMed]
  • Maw MA, Kennedy B, Knight A, Bridges R, Roth KE, Mani EJ, Mukkadan JK, Nancarrow D, Crabb JW, Denton MJ. Mutation of the gene encoding cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. Nat Genet. 1997 Oct;17(2):198–200. [PubMed]
  • Bridges CD, Foster RG, Landers RA, Fong SL. Interstitial retinol-binding protein and cellular retinal-binding protein in the mammalian pineal. Vision Res. 1987;27(12):2049–2060. [PubMed]
  • Martin-Alonso JM, Ghosh S, Hernando N, Crabb JW, Coca-Prados M. Differential expression of the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein in bovine ciliary epithelium. Exp Eye Res. 1993 Jun;56(6):659–669. [PubMed]
  • Sarthy V. Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein localization in cornea. Exp Eye Res. 1996 Dec;63(6):759–762. [PubMed]
  • Saari JC, Huang J, Possin DE, Fariss RN, Leonard J, Garwin GG, Crabb JW, Milam AH. Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein is expressed by oligodendrocytes in optic nerve and brain. Glia. 1997 Nov;21(3):259–268. [PubMed]
  • Winston A, Rando RR. Regulation of isomerohydrolase activity in the visual cycle. Biochemistry. 1998 Feb 17;37(7):2044–2050. [PubMed]
  • Saari JC, Bredberg DL, Noy N. Control of substrate flow at a branch in the visual cycle. Biochemistry. 1994 Mar 15;33(10):3106–3112. [PubMed]
  • Pepperberg DR, Okajima TL, Wiggert B, Ripps H, Crouch RK, Chader GJ. Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP). Molecular biology and physiological role in the visual cycle of rhodopsin. Mol Neurobiol. 1993 Spring;7(1):61–85. [PubMed]
  • Adler AJ, Spencer SA. Effect of light on endogenous ligands carried by interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. Exp Eye Res. 1991 Sep;53(3):337–346. [PubMed]
  • Crouch RK, Hazard ES, Lind T, Wiggert B, Chader G, Corson DW. Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein and alpha-tocopherol preserve the isomeric and oxidation state of retinol. Photochem Photobiol. 1992 Aug;56(2):251–255. [PubMed]
  • Ho MT, Massey JB, Pownall HJ, Anderson RE, Hollyfield JG. Mechanism of vitamin A movement between rod outer segments, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, and liposomes. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jan 15;264(2):928–935. [PubMed]
  • Jones GJ, Crouch RK, Wiggert B, Cornwall MC, Chader GJ. Retinoid requirements for recovery of sensitivity after visual-pigment bleaching in isolated photoreceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Dec;86(23):9606–9610. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Flannery JG, O'Day W, Pfeffer BA, Horwitz J, Bok D. Uptake, processing and release of retinoids by cultured human retinal pigment epithelium. Exp Eye Res. 1990 Dec;51(6):717–728. [PubMed]
  • Okajima TI, Wiggert B, Chader GJ, Pepperberg DR. Retinoid processing in retinal pigment epithelium of toad (Bufo marinus). J Biol Chem. 1994 Sep 2;269(35):21983–21989. [PubMed]
  • Chen H, Wiegand RD, Koutz CA, Anderson RE. Docosahexaenoic acid increases in frog retinal pigment epithelium following rod photoreceptor shedding. Exp Eye Res. 1992 Jul;55(1):93–100. [PubMed]
  • Palczewski K, Van Hooser JP, Garwin GG, Chen J, Liou GI, Saari JC. Kinetics of visual pigment regeneration in excised mouse eyes and in mice with a targeted disruption of the gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein or arrestin. Biochemistry. 1999 Sep 14;38(37):12012–12019. [PubMed]
  • Ruiz A, Winston A, Lim YH, Gilbert BA, Rando RR, Bok D. Molecular and biochemical characterization of lecithin retinol acyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1999 Feb 5;274(6):3834–3841. [PubMed]
  • Chai X, Zhai Y, Popescu G, Napoli JL. Cloning of a cDNA for a second retinol dehydrogenase type II. Expression of its mRNA relative to type I. J Biol Chem. 1995 Nov 24;270(47):28408–28412. [PubMed]
  • Penzes P, Wang X, Sperkova Z, Napoli JL. Cloning of a rat cDNA encoding retinal dehydrogenase isozyme type I and its expression in E. coli. Gene. 1997 Jun 3;191(2):167–172. [PubMed]
  • Wang X, Penzes P, Napoli JL. Cloning of a cDNA encoding an aldehyde dehydrogenase and its expression in Escherichia coli. Recognition of retinal as substrate. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jul 5;271(27):16288–16293. [PubMed]
  • Chai X, Zhai Y, Napoli JL. Cloning of a rat cDNA encoding retinol dehydrogenase isozyme type III. Gene. 1996 Mar 9;169(2):219–222. [PubMed]
  • Chai X, Boerman MH, Zhai Y, Napoli JL. Cloning of a cDNA for liver microsomal retinol dehydrogenase. A tissue-specific, short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 1995 Feb 24;270(8):3900–3904. [PubMed]
  • Jurukovski V, Markova NG, Karaman-Jurukovska N, Randolph RK, Su J, Napoli JL, Simon M. Cloning and characterization of retinol dehydrogenase transcripts expressed in human epidermal keratinocytes. Mol Genet Metab. 1999 May;67(1):62–73. [PubMed]
  • Simon A, Lagercrantz J, Bajalica-Lagercrantz S, Eriksson U. Primary structure of human 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase and organization and chromosomal localization of the corresponding gene. Genomics. 1996 Sep 15;36(3):424–430. [PubMed]
  • Haeseleer F, Huang J, Lebioda L, Saari JC, Palczewski K. Molecular characterization of a novel short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that reduces all-trans-retinal. J Biol Chem. 1998 Aug 21;273(34):21790–21799. [PubMed]
  • Gamble MV, Shang E, Zott RP, Mertz JR, Wolgemuth DJ, Blaner WS. Biochemical properties, tissue expression, and gene structure of a short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase able to catalyze cis-retinol oxidation. J Lipid Res. 1999 Dec;40(12):2279–2292. [PubMed]
  • Zanotti G, Berni R, Monaco HL. Crystal structure of liganded and unliganded forms of bovine plasma retinol-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 25;268(15):10728–10738. [PubMed]
  • Levin MS, Locke B, Yang NC, Li E, Gordon JI. Comparison of the ligand binding properties of two homologous rat apocellular retinol-binding proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1988 Nov 25;263(33):17715–17723. [PubMed]
  • Li E, Qian SJ, Winter NS, d'Avignon A, Levin MS, Gordon JI. Fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the ligand binding properties of two homologous rat cellular retinol-binding proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1991 Feb 25;266(6):3622–3629. [PubMed]

Articles from Biochemical Journal are provided here courtesy of The Biochemical Society

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...