• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of geneticsGeneticsCurrent IssueInformation for AuthorsEditorial BoardSubscribeSubmit a Manuscript
Genetics. Sep 1973; 75(1): 213–219.
PMCID: PMC1212998

Linkage Disequilibrium in Subdivided Populations


The linkage disequilibrium in a subdivided populaton is shown to be equal to the sum of the average linkage disequilibrium for all subpopulations and the covariance between gene frequencies of the loci concerned. Thus, in a subdivided population the linkage disequilibrium may not be 0 even if the linkage disequilibrium in each subpopulation is 0. If a population is divided into two subpopulations between which migration occurs, the asymptotic rate of approach to linkage equilibrium is equal to either r or 2(m1 + m2) - (m1 + m2)2, whichever is smaller, where r is the recombination value and m1 and m2 are the proportions of immigrants in subpopulations 1 and 2, respectively. Thus, if migration rate is high compared with recombination value, the change of linkage disequilibrium in subdivided populations is similar to that of a single random mating population. On the other hand, if migration rate is low, the approach to lnkage equilibrium may be retarded in subdivided populations. If isolated populations begin to exchange genes by migration, linkage disequilibrium may increase temporarily even for neutral loci. If overdominant selection operates and the equilibrium gene frequencies are different in the two subpopulations, a permanent linkage disequilibrium may be produced without epistasis in each subpopulation.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (418K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Franklin I, Lewontin RC. Is the gene the unit of selection? Genetics. 1970 Aug;65(4):707–734. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gershowitz H, Layrisse M, Layrisse Z, Neel JV, Chagnon N, Ayres M. The genetic structure of a tirbal population, the Vanomama Indians. II. Eleven blood-group systems and the ABH-Le secretor traits. Ann Hum Genet. 1972 Mar;35(3):261–269. [PubMed]
  • Sved JA. The stability of linked systems of loci with a small population size. Genetics. 1968 Aug;59(4):543–563. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wills C, Crenshaw J, Vitale J. A computer model allowing maintenance of large amounts of genetic variability in mendelian populations. I. Assumptions and results for large populations. Genetics. 1970 Jan;64(1):107–123. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Genetics are provided here courtesy of Genetics Society of America


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...