Logo of geneticsGeneticsCurrent IssueInformation for AuthorsEditorial BoardSubscribeSubmit a Manuscript
Genetics. 1995 Nov; 141(3): 1199–1207.
PMCID: PMC1206841

Advanced Intercross Lines, an Experimental Population for Fine Genetic Mapping


An advanced intercrossed line (AIL) is an experimental population that can provide more accurate estimates of quantitative trait loci (QTL) map location than conventional mapping populations. An AIL is produced by randomly and sequentially intercrossing a population that initially originated from a cross between two inbred lines or some variant thereof. This provides increasing probability of recombination between any two loci. Consequently, the genetic length of the entire genome is stretched, providing increased mapping resolution. In this way, for example, with the same population size and QTL effect, a 95% confidence interval of QTL map location of 20 cM in the F(2) is reduced fivefold after eight additional random mating generations (F(10)). Simulation results showed that to obtain the anticipated reduction in the confidence interval, breeding population size of the AIL in all generations should comprise an effective number of >/=100 individuals. It is proposed that AILs derived from crosses between known inbred lines may be a useful resource for fine genetic mapping.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (3.8M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Churchill GA, Giovannoni JJ, Tanksley SD. Pooled-sampling makes high-resolution mapping practical with DNA markers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jan 1;90(1):16–20. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Darvasi A, Soller M. Selective DNA pooling for determination of linkage between a molecular marker and a quantitative trait locus. Genetics. 1994 Dec;138(4):1365–1373. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Haldane JB, Waddington CH. Inbreeding and Linkage. Genetics. 1931 Jul;16(4):357–374. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Haley CS, Knott SA. A simple regression method for mapping quantitative trait loci in line crosses using flanking markers. Heredity (Edinb) 1992 Oct;69(4):315–324. [PubMed]
  • Jansen RC. Interval mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci. Genetics. 1993 Sep;135(1):205–211. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jansen RC, Stam P. High resolution of quantitative traits into multiple loci via interval mapping. Genetics. 1994 Apr;136(4):1447–1455. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Khatib H, Darvasi A, Plotski Y, Soller M. Determining relative microsatellite allele frequencies in pooled DNA samples. PCR Methods Appl. 1994 Aug;4(1):13–18. [PubMed]
  • Lander ES, Botstein D. Mapping mendelian factors underlying quantitative traits using RFLP linkage maps. Genetics. 1989 Jan;121(1):185–199. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McMillan I, Robertson A. The power of methods for the detection of major genes affecting quantitative characters. Heredity (Edinb) 1974 Jun;32(3):349–356. [PubMed]
  • Pacek P, Sajantila A, Syvänen AC. Determination of allele frequencies at loci with length polymorphism by quantitative analysis of DNA amplified from pooled samples. PCR Methods Appl. 1993 May;2(4):313–317. [PubMed]
  • Sax K. The Association of Size Differences with Seed-Coat Pattern and Pigmentation in PHASEOLUS VULGARIS. Genetics. 1923 Nov;8(6):552–560. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thompson JN., Jr Quantitative variation and gene number. Nature. 1975 Dec 25;258(5537):665–668. [PubMed]
  • Weller JI. Maximum likelihood techniques for the mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci with the aid of genetic markers. Biometrics. 1986 Sep;42(3):627–640. [PubMed]
  • Zeng ZB. Theoretical basis for separation of multiple linked gene effects in mapping quantitative trait loci. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 1;90(23):10972–10976. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zeng ZB. Precision mapping of quantitative trait loci. Genetics. 1994 Apr;136(4):1457–1468. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Genetics are provided here courtesy of Genetics Society of America


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...