• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of geneticsGeneticsCurrent IssueInformation for AuthorsEditorial BoardSubscribeSubmit a Manuscript
Genetics. Sep 1995; 141(1): 223–236.
PMCID: PMC1206720

Molecular Evolution of the Duplicated Amy Locus in the Drosophila Melanogaster Species Subgroup: Concerted Evolution Only in the Coding Region and an Excess of Nonsynonymous Substitutions in Speciation


From the analysis of restriction maps of the Amy region in eight sibling species belonging to the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup, we herein show that the patterns of duplication of the Amy gene are almost the same in all species. This indicates that duplication occurred before speciation within this species subgroup. From the nucleotide sequence data, we show a strong within-species similarity between the duplicated loci in the Amy coding region. This is in contrast to a strong similarity in the 5' and 3' flanking regions within each locus (proximal or distal) throughout the species subgroup. This means that concerted evolution occurred only in the Amy coding region and that differentiated evolution between the duplication occurred in the flanking regions. Moreover, when comparing the species, we also found a significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions. In particular, all the fixed substitutions specific to D. erecta were found to be nonsynonymous. We thus conclude that adaptive protein evolution occurred in the lineage of D. erecta that is a ``specialist'' species for host plants and probably also occurs in the process of speciation in general.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (1.0M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Arnheim N, Krystal M, Schmickel R, Wilson G, Ryder O, Zimmer E. Molecular evidence for genetic exchanges among ribosomal genes on nonhomologous chromosomes in man and apes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Dec;77(12):7323–7327. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bingham PM, Levis R, Rubin GM. Cloning of DNA sequences from the white locus of D. melanogaster by a novel and general method. Cell. 1981 Sep;25(3):693–704. [PubMed]
  • Boer PH, Hickey DA. The alpha-amylase gene in Drosophila melanogaster: nucleotide sequence, gene structure and expression motifs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Nov 11;14(21):8399–8411. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brown CJ, Aquadro CF, Anderson WW. DNA sequence evolution of the amylase multigene family in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics. 1990 Sep;126(1):131–138. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cariou ML. Biochemical phylogeny of the eight species in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, including D. sechellia and D. orena. Genet Res. 1987 Dec;50(3):181–185. [PubMed]
  • Coen E, Strachan T, Dover G. Dynamics of concerted evolution of ribosomal DNA and histone gene families in the melanogaster species subgroup of Drosophila. J Mol Biol. 1982 Jun 15;158(1):17–35. [PubMed]
  • Daïnou O, Cariou ML, David JR, Hickey D. Amylase gene duplication: an ancestral trait in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. Heredity (Edinb) 1987 Oct;59(Pt 2):245–251. [PubMed]
  • de Jong G, Hoorn AJ, Thörig GE, Scharloo W. Frequencies of amylase variants in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature. 1972 Aug 25;238(5365):453–454. [PubMed]
  • Eanes WF, Kirchner M, Yoon J. Evidence for adaptive evolution of the G6pd gene in the Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Aug 15;90(16):7475–7479. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Frischauf AM, Lehrach H, Poustka A, Murray N. Lambda replacement vectors carrying polylinker sequences. J Mol Biol. 1983 Nov 15;170(4):827–842. [PubMed]
  • Gemmill RM, Levy JN, Doane WW. Molecular cloning of alpha-amylase genes from Drosophila melanogaster. I. Clone isolation by use of a mouse probe. Genetics. 1985 Jun;110(2):299–312. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gemmill RM, Schwartz PE, Doane WW. Structural organization of the Amy locus in seven strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Jul 11;14(13):5337–5352. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hawley SA, Norman RA, Brown CJ, Doane WW, Anderson WW, Hickey DA. Amylase gene expression in intraspecific and interspecific somatic transformants of Drosophila. Genome. 1990 Aug;33(4):501–508. [PubMed]
  • Hey J, Kliman RM. Population genetics and phylogenetics of DNA sequence variation at multiple loci within the Drosophila melanogaster species complex. Mol Biol Evol. 1993 Jul;10(4):804–822. [PubMed]
  • Hickey DA, Bally-Cuif L, Abukashawa S, Payant V, Benkel BF. Concerted evolution of duplicated protein-coding genes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Mar 1;88(5):1611–1615. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Inomata N, Shibata H, Okuyama E, Yamazaki T. Evolutionary relationships and sequence variation of alpha-amylase variants encoded by duplicated genes in the Amy locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1995 Sep;141(1):237–244. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kimura M, Ohta T. Protein polymorphism as a phase of molecular evolution. Nature. 1971 Feb 12;229(5285):467–469. [PubMed]
  • Levy JN, Gemmill RM, Doane WW. Molecular cloning of alpha-amylase genes from Drosophila melanogaster. II. Clone organization and verification. Genetics. 1985 Jun;110(2):313–324. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matsuo Y, Yamazaki T. Nucleotide variation and divergence in the histone multigene family in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1989 May;122(1):87–97. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matsuura Y, Kusunoki M, Harada W, Kakudo M. Structure and possible catalytic residues of Taka-amylase A. J Biochem. 1984 Mar;95(3):697–702. [PubMed]
  • McDonald JH, Kreitman M. Adaptive protein evolution at the Adh locus in Drosophila. Nature. 1991 Jun 20;351(6328):652–654. [PubMed]
  • Meselson MS, Radding CM. A general model for genetic recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Jan;72(1):358–361. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ohta T. Slightly deleterious mutant substitutions in evolution. Nature. 1973 Nov 9;246(5428):96–98. [PubMed]
  • Payant V, Abukashawa S, Sasseville M, Benkel BF, Hickey DA, David J. Evolutionary conservation of the chromosomal configuration and regulation of amylase genes among eight species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. Mol Biol Evol. 1988 Sep;5(5):560–567. [PubMed]
  • Singh RS, Hickey DA, David J. Genetic Differentiation between Geographically Distant Populations of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1982 Jun;101(2):235–256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shibata H, Yamazaki T. A comparative study of the enzymological features of alpha-amylase in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. Jpn J Genet. 1994 Jun;69(3):251–258. [PubMed]

Articles from Genetics are provided here courtesy of Genetics Society of America


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...