• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of geneticsGeneticsCurrent IssueInformation for AuthorsEditorial BoardSubscribeSubmit a Manuscript
Genetics. Dec 1994; 138(4): 1351–1363.
PMCID: PMC1206271

Sampling Theory for Cytonuclear Disequilibria


We examine the statistical properties of cytonuclear disequilibria within a system including one diploid nuclear locus and one haploid cytoplasmic locus, each with two alleles. The results provide practical guidelines for the design and interpretation of cytonuclear surveys seeking to utilize the novel evolutionary information recorded in the observed pattern of cytonuclear associations. Important applications include population studies of nuclear allozymes in conjunction with genes from mitochondria, chloroplasts, or cytoplasmically inherited microorganisms. Our attention focuses on the allelic and genotypic disequilibria, which respectively measure the nonrandom associations between the cytotypes and the nuclear alleles and genotypes. We first derive the maximum likelihood estimators and their approximate large sample variances for each disequilibrium measure. These are each in turn used to set up an asymptotic test of the null hypothesis of no disequilibrium. We then calculate the minimum sample sizes required to detect the disequilibria under specified alternate hypotheses. The work also incorporates the deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the nuclear locus, which can significantly affect the results. The practical utility of this new sampling theory is illustrated through applications to two nuclear-mitochondrial data sets.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (960K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Arnold J, Asmussen MA, Avise JC. An epistatic mating system model can produce permanent cytonuclear disequilibria in a hybrid zone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Mar;85(6):1893–1896. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Asmussen MA, Arnold J. The effects of admixture and population subdivision on cytonuclear disequilibria. Theor Popul Biol. 1991 Jun;39(3):273–300. [PubMed]
  • Asmussen MA, Schnabel A. Comparative effects of pollen and seed migration on the cytonuclear structure of plant populations. I. Maternal cytoplasmic inheritance. Genetics. 1991 Jul;128(3):639–654. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Asmussen MA, Arnold J, Avise JC. Definition and properties of disequilibrium statistics for associations between nuclear and cytoplasmic genotypes. Genetics. 1987 Apr;115(4):755–768. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Asmussen MA, Arnold J, Avise JC. The effects of assortative mating and migration on cytonuclear associations in hybrid zones. Genetics. 1989 Aug;122(4):923–934. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brown AH. Sample sizes required to detect linkage disequilibrium between two or three loci. Theor Popul Biol. 1975 Oct;8(2):184–201. [PubMed]
  • Clark AG. Natural selection with nuclear and cytoplasmic transmission. I. A deterministic model. Genetics. 1984 Aug;107(4):679–701. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ferris SD, Sage RD, Huang CM, Nielsen JT, Ritte U, Wilson AC. Flow of mitochondrial DNA across a species boundary. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Apr;80(8):2290–2294. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fu YX, Arnold J. On the association of restriction fragment length polymorphisms across species boundaries. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 May 1;88(9):3967–3971. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fu YX, Arnold J. Dynamics of cytonuclear disequilibria in finite populations and comparison with a two-locus nuclear system. Theor Popul Biol. 1992 Feb;41(1):1–25. [PubMed]
  • Lamb T, Avise JC. Directional introgression of mitochondrial DNA in a hybrid population of tree frogs: The influence of mating behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Apr;83(8):2526–2530. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lewontin RC. The Interaction of Selection and Linkage. I. General Considerations; Heterotic Models. Genetics. 1964 Jan;49(1):49–67. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Muse SV, Weir BS. Testing for equality of evolutionary rates. Genetics. 1992 Sep;132(1):269–276. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maroof MA, Zhang Q, Neale DB, Allard RW. Associations between nuclear loci and chloroplast DNA genotypes in wild barley. Genetics. 1992 May;131(1):225–231. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schnabel A, Asmussen MA. Definition and properties of disequilibria within nuclear-mitochondrial-chloroplast and other nuclear-dicytoplasmic systems. Genetics. 1989 Sep;123(1):199–215. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schnabel A, Asmussen MA. Comparative effects of pollen and seed migration on the cytonuclear structure of plant populations. II. Paternal cytoplasmic inheritance. Genetics. 1992 Sep;132(1):253–267. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Genetics are provided here courtesy of Genetics Society of America


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...