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Genetics. Dec 1994; 138(4): 1351–1363.
PMCID: PMC1206271

Sampling Theory for Cytonuclear Disequilibria

Abstract

We examine the statistical properties of cytonuclear disequilibria within a system including one diploid nuclear locus and one haploid cytoplasmic locus, each with two alleles. The results provide practical guidelines for the design and interpretation of cytonuclear surveys seeking to utilize the novel evolutionary information recorded in the observed pattern of cytonuclear associations. Important applications include population studies of nuclear allozymes in conjunction with genes from mitochondria, chloroplasts, or cytoplasmically inherited microorganisms. Our attention focuses on the allelic and genotypic disequilibria, which respectively measure the nonrandom associations between the cytotypes and the nuclear alleles and genotypes. We first derive the maximum likelihood estimators and their approximate large sample variances for each disequilibrium measure. These are each in turn used to set up an asymptotic test of the null hypothesis of no disequilibrium. We then calculate the minimum sample sizes required to detect the disequilibria under specified alternate hypotheses. The work also incorporates the deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the nuclear locus, which can significantly affect the results. The practical utility of this new sampling theory is illustrated through applications to two nuclear-mitochondrial data sets.

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Selected References

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