Logo of geneticsGeneticsCurrent IssueInformation for AuthorsEditorial BoardSubscribeSubmit a Manuscript
Genetics. Sep 1993; 135(1): 81–95.
PMCID: PMC1205629

Type I Repressors of P Element Mobility


We describe here a family of P elements that we refer to as type I repressors. These elements are identified by their repressor functions and their lack of any deletion within the first two-thirds of the canonical P sequence. Elements belonging to this repressor class were isolated from P strains and were made in vitro. We found that type I repressor elements could strongly repress both a cytotype-dependent allele and P element mobility in somatic and germline tissues. These effects wer very dependent on genomic position. Moreover, we observed that an element's ability to repress in one assay positively correlated with its ability to repress in either of the other two assays. The type I family of repressor elements includes both autonomous P elements and those lacking exon 3 of the P element. Fine structure deletion mapping showed that the minimal 3' boundary of a functional type I element lies between nucleotide position 1950 and 1956. None of 12 elements examined with more extreme deletions extending into exon 2 made repressor. We conclude that the type I repressors form a structurally distinct group that does not include more extensively deleted repressor elements such as the KP element described previously.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (4.0M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bainton R, Gamas P, Craig NL. Tn7 transposition in vitro proceeds through an excised transposon intermediate generated by staggered breaks in DNA. Cell. 1991 May 31;65(5):805–816. [PubMed]
  • Becker-André M, Hahlbrock K. Absolute mRNA quantification using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A novel approach by a PCR aided transcript titration assay (PATTY). Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Nov 25;17(22):9437–9446. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Black DM, Jackson MS, Kidwell MG, Dover GA. KP elements repress P-induced hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. EMBO J. 1987 Dec 20;6(13):4125–4135. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chain AC, Zollman S, Tseng JC, Laski FA. Identification of a cis-acting sequence required for germ line-specific splicing of the P element ORF2-ORF3 intron. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Mar;11(3):1538–1546. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eggleston WB, Johnson-Schlitz DM, Engels WR. P-M hybrid dysgenesis does not mobilize other transposable element families in D. melanogaster. Nature. 1988 Jan 28;331(6154):368–370. [PubMed]
  • Engels WR. A trans-acting product needed for P factor transposition in Drosophila. Science. 1984 Dec 7;226(4679):1194–1196. [PubMed]
  • Engels WR, Preston CR. Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: the biology of female and male sterility. Genetics. 1979 May;92(1):161–174. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Engels WR, Benz WK, Preston CR, Graham PL, Phillis RW, Robertson HM. Somatic effects of P element activity in Drosophila melanogaster: pupal lethality. Genetics. 1987 Dec;117(4):745–757. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Engels WR, Johnson-Schlitz DM, Eggleston WB, Sved J. High-frequency P element loss in Drosophila is homolog dependent. Cell. 1990 Aug 10;62(3):515–525. [PubMed]
  • Gyllensten UB, Erlich HA. Generation of single-stranded DNA by the polymerase chain reaction and its application to direct sequencing of the HLA-DQA locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Oct;85(20):7652–7656. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Haniford DB, Chelouche AR, Kleckner N. A specific class of IS10 transposase mutants are blocked for target site interactions and promote formation of an excised transposon fragment. Cell. 1989 Oct 20;59(2):385–394. [PubMed]
  • Jackson MS, Black DM, Dover GA. Amplification of KP elements associated with the repression of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1988 Dec;120(4):1003–1013. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kaufman PD, Rio DC. Drosophila P-element transposase is a transcriptional repressor in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Apr 1;88(7):2613–2617. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kaufman PD, Rio DC. P element transposition in vitro proceeds by a cut-and-paste mechanism and uses GTP as a cofactor. Cell. 1992 Apr 3;69(1):27–39. [PubMed]
  • Kidwell MG, Kidwell JF, Sved JA. Hybrid Dysgenesis in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER: A Syndrome of Aberrant Traits Including Mutation, Sterility and Male Recombination. Genetics. 1977 Aug;86(4):813–833. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laski FA, Rio DC, Rubin GM. Tissue specificity of Drosophila P element transposition is regulated at the level of mRNA splicing. Cell. 1986 Jan 17;44(1):7–19. [PubMed]
  • Laski FA, Rubin GM. Analysis of the cis-acting requirements for germ-line-specific splicing of the P-element ORF2-ORF3 intron. Genes Dev. 1989 May;3(5):720–728. [PubMed]
  • Lavoie BD, Chan BS, Allison RG, Chaconas G. Structural aspects of a higher order nucleoprotein complex: induction of an altered DNA structure at the Mu-host junction of the Mu type 1 transpososome. EMBO J. 1991 Oct;10(10):3051–3059. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lemaitre B, Coen D. P regulatory products repress in vivo the P promoter activity in P-lacZ fusion genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 May 15;88(10):4419–4423. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Misra S, Rio DC. Cytotype control of Drosophila P element transposition: the 66 kd protein is a repressor of transposase activity. Cell. 1990 Jul 27;62(2):269–284. [PubMed]
  • Mullins MC, Rio DC, Rubin GM. cis-acting DNA sequence requirements for P-element transposition. Genes Dev. 1989 May;3(5):729–738. [PubMed]
  • Nitasaka E, Mukai T, Yamazaki T. Repressor of P elements in Drosophila melanogaster: Cytotype determination by a defective P element carrying only open reading frames 0 through 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Nov;84(21):7605–7608. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • O'Hare K, Rubin GM. Structures of P transposable elements and their sites of insertion and excision in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Cell. 1983 Aug;34(1):25–35. [PubMed]
  • O'Hare K, Driver A, McGrath S, Johnson-Schiltz DM. Distribution and structure of cloned P elements from the Drosophila melanogaster P strain pi 2. Genet Res. 1992 Aug;60(1):33–41. [PubMed]
  • O'Kane CJ, Gehring WJ. Detection in situ of genomic regulatory elements in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Dec;84(24):9123–9127. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pirrotta V. Vectors for P-mediated transformation in Drosophila. Biotechnology. 1988;10:437–456. [PubMed]
  • Preston CR, Engels WR. Spread of P transposable elements in inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 1989;36:71–85. [PubMed]
  • Rio DC. Molecular mechanisms regulating Drosophila P element transposition. Annu Rev Genet. 1990;24:543–578. [PubMed]
  • Rio DC. Regulation of Drosophila P element transposition. Trends Genet. 1991 Sep;7(9):282–287. [PubMed]
  • Rio DC, Laski FA, Rubin GM. Identification and immunochemical analysis of biologically active Drosophila P element transposase. Cell. 1986 Jan 17;44(1):21–32. [PubMed]
  • Roiha H, Rubin GM, O'Hare K. P element insertions and rearrangements at the singed locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1988 May;119(1):75–83. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ronsseray S, Lehmann M, Anxolabéhère D. The maternally inherited regulation of P elements in Drosophila melanogaster can be elicited by two P copies at cytological site 1A on the X chromosome. Genetics. 1991 Oct;129(2):501–512. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S, Scharf SJ, Higuchi R, Horn GT, Mullis KB, Erlich HA. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science. 1988 Jan 29;239(4839):487–491. [PubMed]
  • Siebel CW, Rio DC. Regulated splicing of the Drosophila P transposable element third intron in vitro: somatic repression. Science. 1990 Jun 8;248(4960):1200–1208. [PubMed]
  • Simmons MJ, Raymond JD, Rasmusson KE, Miller LM, McLarnon CF, Zunt JR. Repression of P element-mediated hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990 Mar;124(3):663–676. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sved JA. Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: evidence from sterility and southern hybridization tests that P cytotype is not maintained in the absence of chromosomal P factors. Genetics. 1987 Jan;115(1):121–127. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wilson C, Pearson RK, Bellen HJ, O'Kane CJ, Grossniklaus U, Gehring WJ. P-element-mediated enhancer detection: an efficient method for isolating and characterizing developmentally regulated genes in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1989 Sep;3(9):1301–1313. [PubMed]

Articles from Genetics are provided here courtesy of Genetics Society of America


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...