• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of cjvetresCVMACanadian Journal of Veterinary ResearchSee also Canadian Journal of Comparative MedicineJournal Web siteHow to Submit
Can J Vet Res. Jul 1997; 61(3): 221–226.
PMCID: PMC1189407

The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in halothane and isoflurane anesthetized dogs: an assessment of repeatability.


Repeat determinations of the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) were made over two 6 h periods on 2 separate days during halothane and isoflurane anesthesia. Each of 6 dogs underwent 4 trials (2 halothane and 2 isoflurane). During each trial, the ADE was determined at baseline, 3 and 6 h. Epinephrine was infused for 3.0 min at increasing dose rates (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg/min) until the arrhythmia criterion (4 or more intermittent or continuous premature ventricular contractions) was reached. The inter-infusion interval was 20 min. There were no significant differences in the measured cardiovascular parameters (SBP, DBP, MBP, and HR), arterial blood gases, or acid-base status prior to each determination during a single trial. The cardiovascular responses to epinephrine infusion were not significantly different between inhalants or determinations. The range of the ADE determined over both trials during isoflurane anesthesia was 30.12 +/- 12.21 micrograms/kg to 50.83 +/- 9.17 micrograms/kg. The baseline ADE during Day 1 of halothane anesthesia (6.70 +/- 1.36 micrograms/kg) was significantly greater than ADE determinations at 3 (4.65 +/- 0.88 micrograms/kg) and 6 h (4.61 +/- 0.87 micrograms/kg). The reduction in the ADE over time during day 2 of halothane anesthesia was not statistically significant (P = 0.0669). These results suggest that during halothane anesthesia, the ADE is not repeatable over time, and they may influence our interpretation of the results of investigations that measure alterations in the ADE due to pharmacological manipulations without repeated control ADE determinations.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Ikezono E, Yasuda K, Hattori Y. Effects of propranolol on epinephrine-induced arrhythmias during halothane anesthesia in man and cats. Anesth Analg. 1969 Jul-Aug;48(4):598–604. [PubMed]
  • Miletich DJ, Albrecht RF, Seals C. Responses to fasting and lipid infusion of epinephrine-induced arrhythmias during halothane anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1978 Apr;48(4):245–249. [PubMed]
  • Lampe GH, Donegan JH, Rupp SM, Wauk LZ, Whitendale P, Fouts KE, Rose BM, Litt LL, Rampil IJ, Wilson CB, et al. Nitrous oxide and epinephrine-induced arrhythmias. Anesth Analg. 1990 Dec;71(6):602–605. [PubMed]
  • Gaynor JS, Bednarski RM, Muir WW., 3rd Effect of hypercapnia on the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in horses anesthetized with guaifenesin, thiamylal sodium, and halothane. Am J Vet Res. 1993 Feb;54(2):315–321. [PubMed]
  • Pace NL, Ohmura A, Wong KC. Epinephrine-induced arrhythmias: effect of exogenous prostaglandins and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition during halothane-O2 anesthesia in the dog. Anesth Analg. 1979 Sep-Oct;58(5):401–404. [PubMed]
  • Sumikawa K, Ishizaka N, Suzaki M. Arrhythmogenic plasma levels of epinephrine during halothane, enflurane, and pentobarbital anesthesia in the dog. Anesthesiology. 1983 Apr;58(4):322–325. [PubMed]
  • Dimich I, Lingham R, Narang J, Sampson I, Shiang H. Esmolol prevents and suppresses arrhythmias during halothane anaesthesia in dogs. Can J Anaesth. 1992 Jan;39(1):83–86. [PubMed]
  • Atlee JL, 3rd, Roberts FL. Thiopental and epinephrine-induced dysrhythmias in dogs anesthetized with enflurane or isoflurane. Anesth Analg. 1986 May;65(5):437–443. [PubMed]
  • Bednarski RM, Muir WW., 3rd Ventricular arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in dogs and cats anesthetized with tiletamine/zolazepam and halothane. Am J Vet Res. 1990 Sep;51(9):1468–1470. [PubMed]
  • Woehlck HJ, Rusy BF, Atlee JL., 3rd Comparison of logdose and bracket protocols for determination of epinephrine arrhythmia thresholds in dogs anesthetized with thiopental-halothane. Anesthesiology. 1991 Nov;75(5):884–892. [PubMed]
  • UEDA I, FUKUSHIMA K, BALLINGER CM, LOEHNING RW. Epinephrine-induced arrhythmias. Effect of carbon dioxide and acid-base changes. Anesthesiology. 1962 May-Jun;23:342–348. [PubMed]
  • Wright M, Heath RB, Wingfield WE. Effects of xylazine and ketamine on epinephrine-induced arrhythmia in the dog. Vet Surg. 1987 Sep-Oct;16(5):398–403. [PubMed]
  • Bednarski RM, Majors LJ, Atlee JL. Epinephrine-induced ventricular arrhythmias in dogs anesthetized with halothane: potentiation by thiamylal and thiopental. Am J Vet Res. 1985 Sep;46(9):1829–1831. [PubMed]
  • Steffey EP, Howland D., Jr Isoflurane potency in the dog and cat. Am J Vet Res. 1977 Nov;38(11):1833–1836. [PubMed]
  • Quasha AL, Eger EI, 2nd, Tinker JH. Determination and applications of MAC. Anesthesiology. 1980 Oct;53(4):315–334. [PubMed]
  • Tranquilli WJ, Thurmon JC, Benson GJ. Alterations in epinephrine-induced arrhythmogenesis after xylazine and subsequent yohimbine administration in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1988 Jul;49(7):1072–1075. [PubMed]
  • Tranquilli WJ, Thurmon JC, Benson GJ, Davis LE. Alteration in the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) following xylazine administration to halothane-anesthetized dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1986 Jun;9(2):198–203. [PubMed]
  • Munson ES, Tucker WK. Doses of epinephrine causing arrhythmia during enflurane, methoxyflurane and halothane anaesthesia in dogs. Can Anaesth Soc J. 1975 Jul;22(4):495–501. [PubMed]
  • Hayashi Y, Sumikawa K, Tashiro C, Yamatodani A, Yoshiya I. Arrhythmogenic threshold of epinephrine during sevoflurane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia in dogs. Anesthesiology. 1988 Jul;69(1):145–147. [PubMed]
  • Joas TA, Stevens WC. Comparison of the arrhythmic doses of epinephrine during Forane, halothane, and fluroxene anesthesia in dogs. Anesthesiology. 1971 Jul;35(1):48–53. [PubMed]
  • Kapur PA, Flacke WE. Epinephrine-induced arrhythmias and cardiovascular function after verapamil during halothane anesthesia in the dog. Anesthesiology. 1981 Sep;55(3):218–225. [PubMed]
  • Metz S, Maze M. Halothane concentration does not alter the threshold for epinephrine-induced arrhythmias in dogs. Anesthesiology. 1985 Apr;62(4):470–474. [PubMed]
  • Hayashi Y, Sumikawa K, Maze M, Yamatodani A, Kamibayashi T, Kuro M, Yoshiya I. Dexmedetomidine prevents epinephrine-induced arrhythmias through stimulation of central alpha 2 adrenoceptors in halothane-anesthetized dogs. Anesthesiology. 1991 Jul;75(1):113–117. [PubMed]
  • BAKER CH, REMINGTON JW. Role of the spleen determining total body hematocrit. Am J Physiol. 1960 Apr;198:906–910. [PubMed]
  • Lefkowitz RJ, Hausdorff WP, Caron MG. Role of phosphorylation in desensitization of the beta-adrenoceptor. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1990 May;11(5):190–194. [PubMed]
  • Lemke KA, Tranquilli WJ, Thurmon JC, Benson GJ, Olson WA. Alterations in the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine after xylazine or medetomidine administration in halothane-anesthetized dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1993 Dec;54(12):2132–2138. [PubMed]
  • Lemke KA, Tranquilli WJ, Thurmon JC, Benson GJ, Olson WA. Alterations in the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine after xylazine or medetomidine administration in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1993 Dec;54(12):2139–2144. [PubMed]
  • Tohmeh JF, Cryer PE. Biphasic adrenergic modulation of beta-adrenergic receptors in man. Agonist-induced early increment and late decrement in beta-adrenergic receptor number. J Clin Invest. 1980 Apr;65(4):836–840. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Todd EP, Vick RL. Kalemotropic effect of epinephrine: analysis with adrenergic agonists and antagonists. Am J Physiol. 1971 Jun;220(6):1964–1969. [PubMed]
  • Struthers AD, Reid JL. The role of adrenal medullary catecholamines in potassium homoeostasis. Clin Sci (Lond) 1984 Apr;66(4):377–382. [PubMed]
  • Reid JL, Whyte KF, Struthers AD. Epinephrine-induced hypokalemia: the role of beta adrenoceptors. Am J Cardiol. 1986 Apr 25;57(12):23F–27F. [PubMed]
  • Struthers AD, Reid JL, Whitesmith R, Rodger JC. Effect of intravenous adrenaline on electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and serum potassium. Br Heart J. 1983 Jan;49(1):90–93. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ajioka M, Sugiyama S, Ogawa K, Satake T, Ozawa T. Mechanism of cardiac arrhythmias induced by epinephrine in dogs with hypokalemia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986 Dec;8(6):1373–1379. [PubMed]
  • Opie LH, Thandroyen FT. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the role of calcium ions in malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1984;427:127–139. [PubMed]
  • Clusin WT, Buchbinder M, Harrison DC. Calcium overload, "injury" current, and early ischaemic cardiac arrhythmias--a direct connection. Lancet. 1983 Feb 5;1(8319):272–274. [PubMed]

Articles from Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research are provided here courtesy of Canadian Veterinary Medical Association


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...