• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of ajhgLink to Publisher's site
Am J Hum Genet. Oct 2004; 75(4): 693–702.
Published online Aug 12, 2004. doi:  10.1086/424697
PMCID: PMC1182057

The Longue Durée of Genetic Ancestry: Multiple Genetic Marker Systems and Celtic Origins on the Atlantic Facade of Europe


Celtic languages are now spoken only on the Atlantic facade of Europe, mainly in Britain and Ireland, but were spoken more widely in western and central Europe until the collapse of the Roman Empire in the first millennium a.d. It has been common to couple archaeological evidence for the expansion of Iron Age elites in central Europe with the dispersal of these languages and of Celtic ethnicity and to posit a central European “homeland” for the Celtic peoples. More recently, however, archaeologists have questioned this “migrationist” view of Celtic ethnogenesis. The proposition of a central European ancestry should be testable by examining the distribution of genetic markers; however, although Y-chromosome patterns in Atlantic Europe show little evidence of central European influence, there has hitherto been insufficient data to confirm this by use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Here, we present both new mtDNA data from Ireland and a novel analysis of a greatly enlarged European mtDNA database. We show that mtDNA lineages, when analyzed in sufficiently large numbers, display patterns significantly similar to a large fraction of both Y-chromosome and autosomal variation. These multiple genetic marker systems indicate a shared ancestry throughout the Atlantic zone, from northern Iberia to western Scandinavia, that dates back to the end of the last Ice Age.

Family resemblances among the Celtic languages were first identified by Edward Lhuyd at the end of the 17th century (Renfrew 1987; Cunliffe 1997; James 1999). The surviving insular Celtic (as opposed to the extinct continental Celtic) languages are usually subdivided into two groups on the basis of a single consonantal shift. Welsh, Breton, and the extinct Cornish language are referred to as “Brythonic,” or “P-Celtic,” whereas Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and the extinct Manx language are thought to be more archaic and are referred to as “Goidelic,” or “Q-Celtic” (Trask 1996). The continental Gaulish language, formerly spoken in northern and central France, was more closely related to the insular Brythonic group but has no surviving descendants. Traces also survive of Celtiberian, a Celtic language spoken in antiquity in western and central Iberia alongside the non-Indo-European Basque language of northeastern Spain and Aquitaine, and of Lepontic, which was spoken in northern Italy from the 6th century. Lhuyd named the languages “Celtic,” after one of the names applied to the people of northern France in Greek and Roman ethnography dating from about the 5th century b.c.

Conflating the historical ethnographic “Celts” and 17th-century “Celtic speakers,” Lhuyd followed up his discovery by proposing that the two forms of the Celtic language had been brought to Britain and Ireland by waves of invasion from the continent, and, in the years that followed, antiquarians and archaeologists suggested that these migrations had their “heartland” in the elite La Tène cultural package of the central European Iron Age. Despite the adoption of La Tène art styles, however, archaeological evidence for large-scale Iron Age migrations into the British Isles has been singularly lacking. In Ireland, for example, La Tène artifacts are relatively rare and are almost always of indigenous manufacture rather than of external origin (Raftery 1994), leading archaeologists and historians to question the accepted idea of Celtic migration to Ireland (Ó’Donnabháin 2000). More generally, Renfrew (1987), among others, proposed that the roots of insular Celtic identity lay within the region in which the Celtic languages were historically spoken, in the diffusion of Indo-European speakers into Britain and Ireland with the arrival of the Neolithic in ~4000 b.c. Cunliffe (2001) appears to go further, describing the coalescence of the Celtic languages along the coastline of the Atlantic facade of Europe, from southern Iberia to the Shetland Islands, via maritime networks that reach back into the late Mesolithic period. The similarities in prehistoric monumental architecture and the spread of the early–Bronze Age “Beaker package,” to take two examples, attest to the likely sharing of beliefs and attitudes through social networks that extended from one end of the Atlantic zone to the other.

This view implies an uncoupling of the link, established by Lhuyd, of a necessary connection between the various aspects of what in the past 200 years has come to be thought of as a “Celtic package”—including, in particular, the peoples encountered and described as “Celts” by the classical authors, the producers of Iron Age La Tène art and their descendants, and speakers of Celtic languages. Modern Celtic speakers should, by this view, be thought of rather as “Atlantic Celts,” whose putative continental Iron Age ancestry is open to question (James 1999; Cunliffe 2001). At the same time, many archaeologists and a seeming majority of historians retain the traditional view with some vigor (Megaw and Megaw 1996, 1998).

Genetic evidence has recently lent some support to the suggestion of a shared ancestral heritage among the human populations of Atlantic Europe. Y-chromosome analysis has highlighted similarities between the Pyrenean populations of northern Spain and western population samples from the British Isles (Hill et al. 2000; Wilson et al. 2001). More specifically, a modal haplotype defined by SNP and STR markers (the “Atlantic modal haplotype” in haplogroup R1b [Y Chromosome Consortium 2002]) is present at an unusually high frequency in each population. This has been interpreted as a common Paleolithic genetic legacy that was relatively undisturbed at the edge of the European peninsula by subsequent dispersals from the east, such as those suggested to have taken place during the spread of the Neolithic (Wilson et al. 2001). Some classical marker systems also hint at Atlantic affinities: for example, alleles of the ABO and Rhesus blood groups display frequency peaks in Atlantic Europe (Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994).

By contrast, studies of human mtDNA in Europe suggested a lack of structure within the continent, leading to debate about the extent to which inferences on demographic history could be justifiably drawn (Richards et al. 1996; Simoni et al. 2000a, 2000b; Torroni et al. 2000). However, with larger data sets, some patterns began to emerge. Wilson et al. (2001) suggested that both mtDNA and X-linked microsatellites (which spend two-thirds of their history in females) indicate an asymmetry between male and female histories of western areas of the British Isles. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of these markers indicated a greater similarity to central European populations than for the Y chromosome, prompting the suggestion that at least one of the “cultural transitions” in the British Isles involved female immigration. More recently, PCA of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies has demonstrated the existence of trends in mtDNA across Europe similar to those found in other markers (Richards et al. 2002). However, since it considered only haplogroup frequencies, this latter analysis did not take advantage of the full range of European variation present at the individual haplotype level. Their analysis was also conducted on a coarse geographical level (since samples sizes were still relatively small) and therefore provided little direct information on finer-scale variation within the continent.

In this study, we assembled and analyzed published European and Near Eastern mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) sequences from 8,533 individuals from 45 populations—twice as many as the largest previous analyses (Di Rienzo and Wilson 1991; Piercy et al. 1993; Pult et al. 1994; Bertranpetit et al. 1995; Sajantila et al. 1995, 1996; Calafell et al. 1996; Côrte-Real et al. 1996; Decorte 1996; Francalacci et al. 1996; Richards et al. 1996, 2000; Hofmann et al. 1997; Baasner et al. 1998; Lutz et al. 1998; Opdal et al. 1998; Parson et al. 1998; Rousselet and Mangin 1998; Salas et al. 1998; Kittles et al. 1999; Orekhov et al. 1999; Pfeiffer et al. 1999; Belledi et al. 2000; Dimo-Simonin et al. 2000; Helgason et al. 2000, 2001; Lahermo et al. 2000; Pereira et al. 2000; Cali et al. 2001; Di Benedetto et al. 2001; Kouvatsi et al. 2001; Larruga et al. 2001; Malyarchuk and Derenko 2001; Mogentale-Profizi et al. 2001; Tagliabracci et al. 2001; Malyarchuk et al. 2002; Passarino et al. 2002; Gonzalez et al. 2003; Dubut et al. 2004; V. M. Cabrera, personal communication). To these, we added 200 new mtDNA sequences from maternally unrelated subjects from Ireland, and we compared the mtDNA variation with that in Y-chromosome and autosomal markers to investigate the extent to which these different genetic marker systems suggest shared or differing demographic histories in the Atlantic zone of Europe.

All samples were collected with informed consent. We then isolated DNA from buccal cells and sequenced the mtDNA HVS-I in both forward and reverse directions. To allow comparison with previously published Irish data, only variation in positions 16030–16394 (with respect to the Cambridge reference sequence [CRS] [Anderson et al. 1981]) was considered. Four SNP markers were also typed by use of RFLP analysis: 12308, 4580, 7028, and 73, distinguishing haplogroups U, V, H, and pre-HV, respectively (Torroni et al. 1996; Macaulay et al. 1999).

We observed a total of 155 haplotypes among the 300 Irish individuals studied (including 100 from previous studies), with all but one sample falling into the main western Eurasian haplogroups: U, HV, JT, I, W, and X (Richards et al. 1998). Full results and additional supplementary information are available from the authors' Web site. A χ2 test of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies in samples from eastern (n=127) and western (n=128) Ireland showed no significant differences (the remaining 45 samples did not fall into the eastern or western region). In addition, the genetic distance (ΦST value) between the two regions, on the basis of HVS-I, is small and not significantly greater than zero. This contrasts with the Y-chromosome pattern in Ireland, where eastern and western complements have been shown to be substantially different. This difference between eastern and western Irish Y chromosomes has been attributed to the preferential settlement of subsequent migrants to the accessible east coast after initial colonization (Hill et al. 2000).

Founder analysis (Richards et al. 2000) dated the entry of different mtDNA lineages into Europe by examining the levels of nucleotide diversity accumulated around haplotypes that have matches in the Near East. Roughly 20% of Europeans, principally those belonging to haplogroups J, T1, and U3, are proposed to descend from Neolithic settlers, with the remainder attributed to earlier Late Paleolithic/Mesolithic inhabitants. About 13% of Irish mtDNAs belong to putative Neolithic clusters, a value that is toward the lower end of the range found in Europe and similar to areas such as Scandinavia and the western Mediterranean (Iberia). This observation is consistent with the progressive dilution of the genetic impact of these migrants toward the north and west of Europe. Furthermore, there is an even distribution of putatively Neolithic haplogroups around the island, suggesting that females who arrived after the initial settlement were not restricted to east-facing regions. There are two potential explanations for this: either they were more mobile after arrival in the east or other regions of the island were in direct contact with the continental source populations. By contrast, however, Y-chromosome lineages of putative Near Eastern Neolithic origin (Semino et al. 2000) appear to be virtually absent from the west of Ireland (Hill et al. 2000).

We first examined broad affinities at the population level. Control-region sequences from 8,733 individuals were assembled from the current and previous studies and were grouped into 45 geographically defined population samples. Each of these was checked for quality, as recommended by Bandelt et al. (2002) (results available on the authors' Web site). Samples from some small and/or isolated populations were excluded from our analysis because of the possibility of unusually strong genetic drift that might confound any broader phylogeographical patterns. These included the Western Isles of Scotland, Orkney, and Skye (Helgason et al. 2001).

We estimated genetic distances between all populations as linearized ΦST statistics (Slatkin 1995) by use of ARLEQUIN, version 2.000 (Schneider et al. 2000). The ΦST values were based on pairwise sequence differences between positions 16090 and 16365 to allow maximum comparability between all populations.

To account for mutation-rate heterogeneity in the mtDNA control region, site rates were modeled as independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.) gamma with α=0.26 (Meyer et al. 1999). The resulting matrix of interpopulation ΦST values was summarized in two dimensions by use of multidimensional scaling (MDS) implemented by the ALSCAL program included in the SPSS package, version 11.0. The results are shown in figure 1. A broadly east-west—or southeast-northwest—trend is evident in the first dimension, with the Jordanian and Basque population samples occupying the respective poles. This echoes the trend observed in a PCA of haplogroup frequencies of European regions (Richards et al. 2002). Spatial autocorrelation analysis confirms that dimension 1 values are consistent with a clinal pattern across Europe (not shown).

Figure  1
MDS plot of interpopulation ΦST values calculated from mtDNA control-region sequence data. The matrix has been condensed to two dimensions, which account for 82% of the original variation. Population labels are as follows: AL = Albania; AR = Armenia; ...

We visualized the geographical variation of each dimension by interpolating observed values to produce a synthetic surface map of Europe by use of the Spatial Analyst extension of ArcView, version 3.2. We employed the inverse distance–weighted method, using the 12 nearest neighbors, to calculate interpolated map values. The resulting values were then divided into 12 equal classes, or contours. Again, the roughly southeast-to-northwest gradient of the first dimension is clear (fig. 2A). Atlantic European samples, including those from Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and Galicia, as well as Iceland and Norway, occupy positions on the edge of the European range, toward the Basque pole. The Iberian Peninsula is notable as an area of steep north-south gradient, with the north more similar to central and western Europe and the south more similar to Mediterranean Europe and the Near East. The second dimension does not appear to display any obvious geographical pattern but does distinguish Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Iceland, and Galicia from areas in Fenno-Scandinavia that have low values in dimension 1.

Figure  2
Synthetic maps of Europe displaying the three significantly correlated dimensions of genetic variation. These are as follows: the first dimension of mtDNA variation (A), the first dimension of Y-chromosome diversity (B), and the second dimension derived ...

To place these findings in the context of other genetic marker systems, we also reexamined published data from loci with different inheritance modes. We reanalyzed, in similar fashion, Y-chromosome data from 3,822 individuals divided into 42 populations (Rosser et al. 2000; Wilson et al. 2001), comprising haplotypes defined by nine binary polymorphisms (SRY-1532, SRY-8299, 92R7, TAT, M9, 12f2, YAP, sY81, and LLY22g) (Rosser et al. 2000).

Dimension 1 of Y-chromosome variation, displayed as a synthetic map (fig. 2B), shows a pattern that is broadly similar to that of mtDNA dimension 1, with a prominent gradient from the Near East to western Europe. A similarity between Atlantic coastal areas is again evident and indeed shows that Ireland and western Britain have a stronger affinity with the Basque region than is found with mtDNA data. Cornwall (where the last Cornish speaker died in 1891) shares this Atlantic affinity in Y-chromosome data but not in mtDNA data. Brittany, an area with a Celtic language and close links to Cornwall, also appears to be an exception in the general mtDNA landscape. We also reanalyzed autosomal variation, using a matrix of interpopulation FST values calculated from classical gene frequencies in 25 European populations (taken from the study by Cavalli-Sforza et al. [1994]). This did not include any Near Eastern populations, but, nonetheless, a similar trend is observed (fig. 2C). However, unlike the Y chromosome or mtDNA, this is clearer in the second dimension (see Torroni et al. 1998).

By use of Pearson’s correlation coefficient, we assessed the congruence of the major trend in mtDNA variation (dimension 1 [fig. 2A]) with, first, the two dimensions of Y-chromosome variation and, second, both dimensions of autosomal diversity. Since gene flow between neighboring populations leads to prior spatial autocorrelation (or the nonindependence of genetic variation across loci with respect to geography), we applied the Dutilleul (1993) correction, as implemented in the PASSAGE package (Rosenberg 2001). An effective or reduced sample size (and thus fewer degrees of freedom) is calculated to reflect spatial structure; this can then be applied in a t test to gauge the significance of the correlation coefficient. An appropriate number of distance classes for each comparison was set by use of Yule’s rule. mtDNA dimension 1 correlated strongly and significantly with Y-chromosome dimension 1 (r=0.714; P=.033 [corrected for two comparisons]) but not with the second dimension (r=0.314; P=.312). Conversely, dimension 2 in autosomal variation is correlated with the predominant mtDNA trend (r=0.528; P=.043), whereas dimension 1 is not (r=0.141; P=.86).

Focusing on the relationships between Ireland and its neighbors, we investigated the geographical provenance of matches to Irish mtDNA haplotypes. This was implemented by comparing each haplotype found in Ireland (positions 16093–16362) with a world database of mtDNA HVS-I sequences assembled from previous studies (Röhl et al. 2001). By use of the geographical information system “mtradius” (Forster et al. 2002), which uses information on the location and frequency of the closest matching haplotypes, we calculated a center of gravity (or center of distribution), with an SD in kilometers (km) as an indication of the dispersal range of the haplotypes. Higher SDs tend to occur with common ancestral haplotypes that have widespread distributions, which are phylogeographically rather uninformative. The less widely and more recently dispersed haplotypes were identified here as point estimates, with an SD of <500 km and an intermediate category of 500–1,000 km.

The results are displayed on a map of Europe in figure 3. The most frequent Irish haplotypes, represented by larger circle size, also have high SDs, indicating that they are widespread throughout Europe. Haplotypes with intermediate SDs are more common in western Europe, whereas haplotypes with low SDs are concentrated almost exclusively in Atlantic and (to a much lesser extent) Mediterranean Europe. The concentration of center-of-gravity estimates with low and intermediate SDs within or adjacent to the Atlantic zone (seen in fig. 2A) is notable. However, the most striking result is the very strong sharing of localized haplotypes with Britain, particularly Scotland. These are widely distributed throughout Ireland and are not concentrated in particular areas. A lesser degree of sharing is also apparent between Ireland and Pyrenean Spain. It is also noteworthy that particular mtDNAs that are characteristic of central Europe, such as J1a (Richards et al. 1998), are virtually absent from the Atlantic facade.

Figure  3
Estimated “dispersal points” (centers of gravity) for the 146 mtDNA haplotypes (positions 16093–16362) found in Ireland. Each circle represents a distinct haplotype. Circle size indicates the frequency of that type in Ireland, ...

Previous studies of Y-chromosome variation demonstrated strong levels of differentiation within Europe (Rosser et al. 2000), and variation in autosomal loci often exhibits a similar structure (Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994). However, a detailed portrait of mtDNA structure in Europe has hitherto remained elusive. Yet concordance between different marker systems is an important means of demonstrating that geographical patterns are the result of demographic history and not (for example) of selection. These results strongly suggest—for the first time, to our knowledge—that the demographic histories of Europe, in general, and Ireland, in particular, are similarly recorded in loci with different inheritance patterns. The use of a very large data set that was checked for quality, analyzed at the level of individual lineages, and subdivided into fine population units appears to have been a key factor in the identification of the hitherto-undetected mtDNA patterns seen here.

Previous studies indicated particular affinities within the Atlantic zone of Europe on the basis of the distribution of both the Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b (which reaches frequencies approaching 100% in some parts of western Europe) and the mtDNA haplogroup V (which, however, amounts to <5% of European mtDNAs) (Torroni et al. 1998, 2001; Hill et al. 2000; Semino et al. 2000; Wilson et al. 2001). During the last glaciation, human habitation is thought to have been largely restricted to refugial areas in southern Europe; one of the most important of these is likely to have been in southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula (Dolukhanov 1993; Housley et al. 1997; Gamble et al. 2004). The recolonization of western Europe from an Iberian refugium after the retreat of the ice sheets ~15,000 years ago could explain the common genetic legacy in the area. An alternative but not mutually exclusive model would place Atlantic fringe populations at the “Mesolithic” extreme of a Neolithic demic expansion into Europe from the Near East.

In any event, the preservation of this signal within the Atlantic arc suggests that this region was relatively undisturbed by subsequent migrations across the continent. The identification of likely dispersal points for some Irish haplotypes in northern Spain and western France is further evidence for links between Atlantic populations. Cunliffe (2001) has used Braudel’s term, the “longuedurée,” to describe the long-term sedimentation of traditions on the Atlantic facade, which he suggests may stem from the late Mesolithic period, perhaps even predating the arrival of agriculture in the region. Our results support the view that the genetic legacy, at least, of the region may trace back this far and perhaps even to the earliest settlements following recolonization after the Last Glacial Maximum.

An alternative explanation might simply be restricted patterns of long-term gene flow within these two major ecogeographical zones in Europe, facilitated by the Atlantic and Mediterranean seaways. It is difficult to distinguish genetically between a common Paleolithic origin and more recent contacts. However, haplogroup R1b3f Y chromosomes, which have a recent origin in Iberia (Hurles et al. 1999), have not been found in Ireland (Hill et al. 2000), arguing against the migration of very large numbers of men by this route, at least, in the past 2,000–3,000 years. This would be consistent with the suggestion that most contacts over this period would have been small scale, rather in the manner of the Kula ring in the western Pacific (Cunliffe 2001). On the female side, the presence of putatively Neolithic mtDNA haplogroups in Ireland does indicate some gene flow from the continent after the initial peopling of the island (~9,000 years before the present) following the postglacial reexpansion (see Wilson et al. 2001), although this could have been at any time in the past 6,000 years or so.

A degree of genetic heterogeneity in the British Isles is apparent, at least on the Y chromosome and much more tentatively on the mtDNA, with southeastern England tending to show a greater affinity to neighboring areas of continental Europe. Anglo-Saxon mass migration has been proposed as the explanation for this pattern in Y-chromosome variation (Weale et al. 2002; Capelli et al. 2003). Such explanations may seem feasible for the Y chromosome, given the high levels of drift that might be associated with disproportionately high numbers of offspring among conquering elite males. However, the weight of archaeological evidence is against population replacement associated with the Anglo-Saxon conquest (Esmonde-Cleary 1989), suggesting that alternative explanations should be considered. It may be that the genetic landscape of southeastern Britain has been shaped by older links with the continent, perhaps during the Neolithic period or even before the filling of the North Sea, when Britain was still connected to the continent via the Doggerland plain (Coles 1998).

The multiple mtDNA links between Ireland and Britain, particularly Scotland, are especially striking (see O’Donnell et al. 2002). Archaeological evidence supports contacts during prehistory, and early historical accounts describe the establishment of Irish colonies in Scotland from at least a.d. ~500 (indeed, the name “Scotland” derives from the Latin word for “Ireland” at this time). Linguistically, modern Scottish Gaelic is a clear derivative of the Irish language. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the plantation of Ulster led to the arrival of substantial numbers of settlers moving in the opposite direction. However, the widespread distribution of these mtDNA haplotypes within Ireland suggests they may be largely the result of earlier contacts.

What seems clear is that neither the mtDNA pattern nor that of the Y-chromosome markers supports a substantially central European Iron Age origin for most Celtic speakers—or former Celtic speakers—of the Atlantic facade. The affinities of the areas where Celtic languages are spoken, or were formerly spoken, are generally with other regions in the Atlantic zone, from northern Spain to northern Britain. Although some level of Iron Age immigration into Britain and Ireland could probably never be ruled out by the use of modern genetic data, these results point toward a distinctive Atlantic genetic heritage with roots in the processes at the end of the last Ice Age.


We thank all the volunteers for providing DNA samples, and we are grateful for the financial support for this work provided by the National Millennium Committee through the Royal Irish Academy, as well as by Patrick Guinness and Joseph Donohoe through the Trinity Trust. We thank Vicente M. Cabrera, for access to unpublished Jordanian mtDNA sequences, and Agnar Helgason, José Larruga, Sabine Lutz, Isabelle Dupanloup, Alain Stévanovitch, Päivi Lahermo, and Adriano Tagliabracci, for providing sequences in convenient format. Thanks are also due to Vincent Macaulay, for his assistance with sequence quality checks; Abigail R. Freeman, for figure formatting; Ceiridwen J. Edwards and Muiris O’Sullivan, for helpful discussion and proofreading; and two anonymous reviewers, for their helpful comments.

Electronic-Database Information

The URL for data presented herein is as follows:

Authors' Web site, http://www.gen.tcd.ie/molpopgen/data.htm (for full Irish results, as well as the mtDNA HVS-I sequence data set used in this study)


Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, de Bruijn MH, Coulson AR, Drouin J, Eperon IC, Nierlich DP, Roe BA, Sanger F, Schreier PH, Smith AJ, Staden R, Young IG (1981) Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome. Nature 290:457–465 [PubMed]
Baasner A, Schafer C, Junge A, Madea B (1998) Polymorphic sites in human mitochondrial DNA control region sequences: population data and maternal inheritance. Forensic Sci Int 98:169–178 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1016/S0379-0738(98)00163-7
Bandelt H-J, Quintana-Murci L, Salas A, Macaulay V (2002) The fingerprint of phantom mutations in mitochondrial DNA data. Am J Hum Genet 71:1150–1160 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Belledi M, Poloni ES, Casalotti R, Conterio F, Mikerezi I, Tagliavini J, Excoffier L (2000) Maternal and paternal lineages in Albania and the genetic structure of Indo-European populations. Eur J Hum Genet 8:480–486 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200443
Bertranpetit J, Sala J, Calafell F, Underhill PA, Moral P, Comas D (1995) Human mitochondrial DNA variation and the origin of Basques. Ann Hum Genet 59:63–81 [PubMed]
Calafell F, Underhill P, Tolun A, Angelicheva D, Kalaydjieva L (1996) From Asia to Europe: mitochondrial DNA sequence variability in Bulgarians and Turks. Ann Hum Genet 60:35–49 [PubMed]
Cali F, Le Roux MG, D’Anna R, Flugy A, De Leo G, Chiavetta V, Ayala GF, Romano V (2001) MtDNA control region and RFLP data for Sicily and France. Int J Legal Med 114:229–231 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1007/s004140000169
Capelli C, Redhead N, Abernethy JK, Gratrix F, Wilson JF, Moen T, Hervig T, Richards M, Stumpf MP, Underhill PA, Bradshaw P, Shaha A, Thomas MG, Bradman N, Goldstein DB (2003) A Y chromosome census of the British Isles. Curr Biol 13:979–984 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00373-7
Cavalli-Sforza L, Menozzi P, Piazza A (1994) The history and geography of human genes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ
Coles B (1998) Doggerland: a speculative survey. Proc Prehist Soc 64:45–81
Côrte-Real HB, Macaulay VA, Richards MB, Hariti G, Issad MS, Cambon-Thomsen A, Papiha S, Bertranpetit J, Sykes BC (1996) Genetic diversity in the Iberian Peninsula determined from mitochondrial sequence analysis. Ann Hum Genet 60:331–350 [PubMed]
Cunliffe B (1997) The ancient Celts. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom
——— (2001) Facing the ocean: the Atlantic and its people. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom
Decorte R (1996) Genetic analysis of single hair shafts by automated sequence analysis of the mitochondrial d-loop region. Adv Forensics Haemogenet 6:17–19
Di Benedetto G, Erguven A, Stenico M, Castri L, Bertorelle G, Togan I, Barbujani G (2001) DNA diversity and population admixture in Anatolia. Am J Phys Anthropol 115:144–156 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1002/ajpa.1064
Di Rienzo A, Wilson AC (1991) Branching pattern in the evolutionary tree for human mitochondrial DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:1597–1601 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Dimo-Simonin N, Grange F, Taroni F, Brandt-Casadevall C, Mangin P (2000) Forensic evaluation of mtDNA in a population from south west Switzerland. Int J Legal Med 113:89–97 [PubMed]
Dolukhanov PM (1993) Foraging and farming groups in north-eastern and north-western Europe: identity and interaction. In: Chapman D, Dolukhanov P (eds) Cultural transformations and interactions in eastern Europe. Avebury, Aldershot, United Kingdom, pp 122–145
Dubut V, Chollet L, Murail P, Cartault F, Beraud-Colomb E, Serre M, Mogentale-Profizi N (2004) mtDNA polymorphisms in five French groups: importance of regional sampling. Eur J Hum Genet 12:293–300 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201145
Dutilleul P (1993) Modifying the t test for assessing correlation between two spatial process. Biometrics 49:305–314
Esmonde-Cleary AS (1989) The ending of Roman Britain. Batsford, London
Forster P, Cali F, Rohl A, Metspalu E, D’Anna R, Mirisola M, De Leo G, Flugy A, Salerno A, Ayala G, Kouvatsi A, Villems R, Romano V (2002) Continental and subcontinental distributions of mtDNA control region types. Int J Legal Med 116:99–108 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1007/s00414-001-0261-z
Francalacci P, Bertranpetit J, Calafell F, Underhill PA (1996) Sequence diversity of the control region of mitochondrial DNA in Tuscany and its implications for the peopling of Europe. Am J Phys Anthropol 100:443–460 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199608)100:4<443::AID-AJPA1>3.0.CO;2-S
Gamble C, Davies W, Pettitt P, Richards M (2004) Climate change and evolving human diversity in Europe during the last glacial. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:243–253 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1098/rstb.2003.1396
Gonzalez AM, Brehm A, Perez JA, Maca-Meyer N, Flores C, Cabrera VM (2003) Mitochondrial DNA affinities at the Atlantic fringe of Europe. Am J Phys Anthropol 120:391–404 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1002/ajpa.10168
Helgason A, Hickey E, Goodacre S, Bosnes V, Stefansson K, Ward R, Sykes B (2001) mtDNA and the islands of the North Atlantic: estimating the proportions of Norse and Gaelic ancestry. Am J Hum Genet 68:723–737 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Helgason A, Sigurðardóttir S, Gulcher JR, Ward R, Stefánsson K (2000) mtDNA and the origin of the Icelanders: deciphering signals of recent population history. Am J Hum Genet 66:999–1016 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Hill EW, Jobling MA, Bradley DG (2000) Y-chromosome variation and Irish origins. Nature 404:351–352 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1038/35006158
Hofmann S, Jaksch M, Bezold R, Mertens S, Aholt S, Paprotta A, Gerbitz KD (1997) Population genetics and disease susceptibility: characterization of central European haplogroups by mtDNA gene mutations, correlation with D loop variants and association with disease. Hum Mol Genet 6:1835–1846 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1093/hmg/6.11.1835
Housley RA, Gamble CS, Street M, Pettitt P (1997) Radiocarbon evidence for the late glacial human recolonisation of northern Europe. Proc Prehist Soc 63:25–44
Hurles ME, Veitia R, Arroyo E, Armenteros M, Bertranpetit J, Perez-Lezaun A, Bosch E, Shlumukova M, Cambon-Thomsen A, McElreavey K, Lopez De Munain A, Rohl A, Wilson IJ, Singh L, Pandya A, Santos FR, Tyler-Smith C, Jobling MA (1999) Recent male-mediated gene flow over a linguistic barrier in Iberia, suggested by analysis of a Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphism. Am J Hum Genet 65:1437–1448 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
James S (1999) The Atlantic Celts. British Museum Press, London
Kittles RA, Bergen AW, Urbanek M, Virkkunen M, Linnoila M, Goldman D, Long JC (1999) Autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome DNA variation in Finland: evidence for a male-specific bottleneck. Am J Phys Anthropol 108:381–399 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199904)108:4<381::AID-AJPA1>3.0.CO;2-5
Kouvatsi A, Karaiskou N, Apostolidis A, Kirmizidis G (2001) Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Greeks. Hum Biol 73:855–869 [PubMed]
Lahermo P, Laitinen V, Sistonen P, Beres J, Karcagi V, Savontaus ML (2000) MtDNA polymorphism in the Hungarians: comparison to three other Finno-Ugric-speaking populations. Hereditas 132:35–42 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1111/j.1601-5223.2000.00035.x
Larruga JM, Diez F, Pinto FM, Flores C, Gonzalez AM (2001) Mitochondrial DNA characterisation of European isolates: the Maragatos from Spain. Eur J Hum Genet 9:708–716 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200693
Lutz S, Weisser HJ, Heizmann J, Pollak S (1998) Location and frequency of polymorphic positions in the mtDNA control region of individuals from Germany. Int J Legal Med 111:67–77 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1007/s004140050117
Macaulay V, Richards M, Hickey E, Vega E, Cruciani F, Guida V, Scozzari R, Bonne-Tamir B, Sykes B, Torroni A (1999) The emerging tree of west Eurasian mtDNAs: a synthesis of control-region sequences and RFLPs. Am J Hum Genet 64:232–249 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Malyarchuk BA, Derenko MV (2001) Mitochondrial DNA variability in Russians and Ukrainians: implication to the origin of the Eastern Slavs. Ann Hum Genet 65:63–78 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1046/j.1469-1809.2001.6510063.x
Malyarchuk BA, Grzybowski T, Derenko MV, Czarny J, Wozniak M, Miscicka-Sliwka D (2002) Mitochondrial DNA variability in Poles and Russians. Ann Hum Genet 66:261–283 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1046/j.1469-1809.2002.00116.x
Megaw JVS, Megaw MR (1996) Ancient Celts and modern ethnicity. Antiquity LXX:175–181
——— (1998) The mechanism of (Celtic) dreams?: a partial response to our critics. Antiquity LXXII:432–435
Meyer S, Weiss G, von Haeseler A (1999) Pattern of nucleotide substitution and rate heterogeneity in the hypervariable regions I and II of human mtDNA. Genetics 152:1103–1110 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Mogentale-Profizi N, Chollet L, Stevanovitch A, Dubut V, Poggi C, Pradie MP, Spadoni JL, Gilles A, Beraud-Colomb E (2001) Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in two groups of Italian Veneto speakers from Veneto. Ann Hum Genet 65:153–166 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1046/j.1469-1809.2001.6520153.x
Ó’Donnabháin B (2000) An appalling vista? The Celts and the archaeology of later prehistoric Ireland. In: Desmond A, Johnson G, McCarthy M, Sheehan J, Shee Twohig E (eds) New agendas in Irish prehistory. Wordwell, Bray, Ireland, pp 189–196
O’Donnell KA, O’Neill C, Tighe O, Bertorelle G, Naughten E, Mayne PD, Croke DT (2002) The mutation spectrum of hyperphenylalaninaemia in the Republic of Ireland: the population history of the Irish revisited. Eur J Hum Genet 10:530–538 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200841
Opdal SH, Rognum TO, Vege A, Stave AK, Dupuy BM, Egeland T (1998) Increased number of substitutions in the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA in the sudden infant death syndrome. Acta Paediatr 87:1039–1044 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1080/080352598750031347
Orekhov V, Poltoraus A, Zhivotovsky LA, Spitsyn V, Ivanov P, Yankovsky N (1999) Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in Russians. FEBS Lett 445:197–201 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00115-5
Parson W, Parsons TJ, Scheithauer R, Holland MM (1998) Population data for 101 Austrian Caucasian mitochondrial DNA d-loop sequences: application of mtDNA sequence analysis to a forensic case. Int J Legal Med 111:124–132 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1007/s004140050132
Passarino G, Cavalleri GL, Lin AA, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Borresen-Dale AL, Underhill PA (2002) Different genetic components in the Norwegian population revealed by the analysis of mtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms. Eur J Hum Genet 10:521–529 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200834
Pereira L, Prata MJ, Amorim A (2000) Diversity of mtDNA lineages in Portugal: not a genetic edge of European variation. Ann Hum Genet 64:491–506 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1046/j.1469-1809.2000.6460491.x
Pfeiffer H, Brinkmann B, Huhne J, Rolf B, Morris AA, Steighner R, Holland MM, Forster P (1999) Expanding the forensic German mitochondrial DNA control region database: genetic diversity as a function of sample size and microgeography. Int J Legal Med 112:291–298 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1007/s004140050252
Piercy R, Sullivan KM, Benson N, Gill P (1993) The application of mitochondrial DNA typing to the study of white Caucasian genetic identification. Int J Legal Med 106:85–90 [PubMed]
Pult I, Sajantila A, Simanainen J, Georgiev O, Schaffner W, Paabo S (1994) Mitochondrial DNA sequences from Switzerland reveal striking homogeneity of European populations. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 375:837–840 [PubMed]
Raftery B (1994) Pagan Celtic Ireland: the enigma of the Irish Iron Age. Thames and Hudson, London
Renfrew C (1987) Archaeology and language. Jonathan Cape, London
Richards M, Corte-Real H, Forster P, Macaulay V, Wilkinson-Herbots H, Demaine A, Papiha S, Hedges R, Bandelt H-J, Sykes B (1996) Paleolithic and neolithic lineages in the European mitochondrial gene pool. Am J Hum Genet 59:185–203 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Richards M, Macaulay V, Hickey E, Vega E, Sykes B, Guida V, Rengo C, et al (2000) Tracing European founder lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA pool. Am J Hum Genet 67:1251–1276 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Richards M, Macaulay V, Torroni A, Bandelt H-J (2002) In search of geographical patterns in European mitochondrial DNA. Am J Hum Genet 71:1168–1174 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Richards MB, Macaulay VA, Bandelt H-J, Sykes BC (1998) Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA in western Europe. Ann Hum Genet 62:241–260 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1046/j.1469-1809.1998.6230241.x
Röhl A, Brinkmann B, Forster L, Forster P (2001) An annotated mtDNA database. Int J Legal Med 115:29–39 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1007/s004140100217
Rosenberg MS (2001) PASSAGE: pattern analysis, spatial statistics, and geographic exegesis, release, Department of Biology, Arizona State University, Temple, AZ
Rosser ZH, Zerjal T, Hurles ME, Adojaan M, Alavantic D, Amorim A, Amos W, et al (2000) Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language. Am J Hum Genet 67:1526–1543 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Rousselet F, Mangin P (1998) Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms: a study of 50 French Caucasian individuals and application to forensic casework. Int J Legal Med 111:292–298 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1007/s004140050174
Sajantila A, Lahermo P, Anttinen T, Lukka M, Sistonen P, Savontaus ML, Aula P, Beckman L, Tranebjaerg L, Gedde-Dahl T, Issel-Tarver L, Di Rienzo A, Paabo S (1995) Genes and languages in Europe: an analysis of mitochondrial lineages. Genome Res 5:42–52 [PubMed]
Sajantila A, Salem AH, Savolainen P, Bauer K, Gierig C, Paabo S (1996) Paternal and maternal DNA lineages reveal a bottleneck in the founding of the Finnish population. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:12035–12039 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1073/pnas.93.21.12035
Salas A, Comas D, Lareu MV, Bertranpetit J, Carracedo A (1998) mtDNA analysis of the Galician population: a genetic edge of European variation. Eur J Hum Genet 6:365–375 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200202
Schneider S, Roessli D, Excoffier L (2000) ARLEQUIN, version 2000: a software for population genetic analysis. Genetics and Biometric Laboratory, University of Geneva, Geneva
Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, Marcikiae M, Mika A, Mika B, Primorac D, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA (2000) The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective. Science 290:1155–1159 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1126/science.290.5494.1155
Simoni L, Calafell F, Pettener D, Bertranpetit J, Barbujani G (2000a) Geographic patterns of mtDNA diversity in Europe. Am J Hum Genet 66:262–278 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
——— (2000b) Reconstruction of prehistory on the basis of genetic data. Am J Hum Genet 66:1177–1179 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Slatkin M (1995) A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies. Genetics 139:457–462 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Tagliabracci A, Turchi C, Buscemi L, Sassaroli C (2001) Polymorphism of the mitochondrial DNA control region in Italians. Int J Legal Med 114:224–228 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1007/s004140000168
Torroni A, Bandelt H-J, D’Urbano L, Lahermo P, Moral P, Sellitto D, Rengo C, Forster P, Savontaus ML, Bonne-Tamir B, Scozzari R (1998) mtDNA analysis reveals a major late Paleolithic population expansion from southwestern to northeastern Europe. Am J Hum Genet 62:1137–1152 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Torroni A, Bandelt H-J, Macaulay V, Richards M, Cruciani F, Rengo C, Martinez-Cabrera V, et al (2001) A signal, from human mtDNA, of postglacial recolonization in Europe. Am J Hum Genet 69:844–852 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Torroni A, Huoponen K, Francalacci P, Petrozzi M, Morelli L, Scozzari R, Obinu D, Savontaus ML, Wallace DC (1996) Classification of European mtDNAs from an analysis of three European populations. Genetics 144:1835–1850 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Torroni A, Richards M, Macaulay V, Forster P, Villems R, Norby S, Savontaus ML, Huoponen K, Scozzari R, Bandelt H-J (2000) mtDNA haplogroups and frequency patterns in Europe. Am J Hum Genet 66:1173–1177 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Trask RL (1996) Historical linguistics. Arnold, London
Weale ME, Weiss DA, Jager RF, Bradman N, Thomas MG (2002) Y chromosome evidence for Anglo-Saxon mass migration. Mol Biol Evol 19:1008–1021 [PubMed]
Wilson JF, Weiss DA, Richards M, Thomas MG, Bradman N, Goldstein DB (2001) Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:5078–5083 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1073/pnas.071036898
Y Chromosome Consortium (2002) A nomenclature system for the tree of human Y-chromosomal binary haplogroups. Genome Res 12:339–348 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]10.1101/gr.217602

Articles from American Journal of Human Genetics are provided here courtesy of American Society of Human Genetics
PubReader format: click here to try


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...