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Table 1

Frequencies of Haplogroup I and its Subhaplogroups

Hg I
Frequency of I Subhaplogroupa(%)
Region and PopulationSampleSizeN%I* M170I1a* M253I1a4 M227I1b*P37I1b2 M26I1c M223hb
Western Europe:
 Portuguesec303165.31.31.3.7.31.6.808
 Andalusianc,d10343.92.91.0
 Catalanc,d3213.13.1
 Basque (Spanish, French)c,d10066.06.0.000
 Bearnaisc2627.77.7
 French (Southern France)c38615.85.35.35.3.800
 French (Low Normandy)c421023.84.811.92.44.8.733
 French (Lyon, Poitier)c9944.02.01.01.0
 Swissc144117.6.75.61.4.473
 Irish (Rush)e76810.5NTNTNTNT2.6NT
 Welshe196168.1NTNTNTNT.5NT
 Englishe94517418.4NTNTNTNT.7NT
 Scottishe1782011.2NTNTNTNTNT
 Scottish (Scottish Isles)e2724516.5NTNTNTNT.4NT
 Germanc,d16637.525.012.5.733
 Dutchc,d30826.716.710.0.535
 Danishf1947538.7NTNTNTNTNTNT
Macaronesia:
 Madeiran (Portugal)c13264.51.5.7.71.5.866
 Azorean (Portugal)c12175.81.62.51.6.762
 Cape Verde Islandersc2011.5.5
Southern Europe:
 Italian (northern Italy)c19494.62.61.01.0.688
 Italian (central Italy)c196147.11.02.01.03.0.747
 Italian (Calabria)c,d14885.42.0.7.7.71.4.857
 Italian (Albanese origin)c7856.41.31.33.8
 Italian (Apulia)c7822.61.31.3
 Italian (Sicily)g5148.8NTNTNTNTNT
 Italian (Sardinia)c,d1426042.340.91.4.098
 Corsicang3413.9NTNTNTNTNT
Balkans:
 Slovenianc552138.23.610.91.820.01.8.663
 Croat (mainland)c,d,h1897238.1.55.3.531.2.5.312
 Bosnianc1004242.02.040.0.092
 Albanianc1062523.62.817.03.8.581
 Macedonian (northern Greece)c501530.02.08.02.018.0.600
 Romanianc3618022.2.81.717.71.9.356
 Moldavianc601728.33.321.73.3.411
 Gagauz (Moldova)c792531.62.524.15.1.406
 Greekc,d2613613.81.52.38.41.5.590
Northern Europe:
 Swedish (South Sweden)c1686840.5.635.7.63.6.216
 Swedish (North Sweden)c571526.326.3.000
 Norwegianc,i722940.338.91.4.058
 Saamic,j351131.42.928.6.182
Baltic:
 Estonianc,j2103918.614.8.52.9.5.310
 Latvianc,j8667.04.71.21.2.600
Central-eastern Europe:
 Polishc,d1913417.85.81.09.91.0.593
 Czech and Slovakc,d1982713.6.54.5.57.11.0.635
 Hungarianc,d1623722.8.69.911.11.2.588
 Byelorussianc1472819.0.72.715.0.7.373
 Ukrainianc,d58512821.9.24.8.316.1.5.415
 Russian (northern, Pinega)c12764.7.83.9.333
 Russian (Kostroma region)c531018.96.09.43.7.688
 Russian (Smolensk region)c1201310.81.79.1.283
 Russian (Belgorod region)c1442416.73.512.5.7.634
 Russian (Cossacks)c972222.71.04.115.52.0.515
 Russian (Adygea)c781924.41.35.116.71.3.508
 Russian (Bashkortostan)c5036.04.02.0
 Udmurtc,d13232.3NTNTNTNTNTNT
 Mordvinc831619.312.02.44.8.566
 Komic11054.53.6.9
 Chuvashesc80911.37.51.32.5.555
 Tatarc12364.91.6.82.4.733
Near East:
 Turkishc,d,k741385.11.1.92.3.7.723
 Lebanesec,d6634.51.51.51.5
 Jewishc,d15021.3.7.7
 Iraqic,l1761.6.6
 Iranianc830
Caucasus, Central Asia:
 Nogaysc6134.94.9
 Adygeisc13864.31.42.9.533
 Karachaisc7057.17.1
 Northern Caucasianm11476.1NTNTNTNTNTNT
 Southern Caucasianm249104.0NTNTNTNTNTNT
 Georgianc,d630
 Central Asiann984151.5NTNTNTNTNTNT
aNT = not tested.
bHaplogroup diversities (h) were calculated as described by Nei (1987) if more than five Y chromosomes belonged to haplogroup I.
cSample examined in the present study. When a sample includes subsamples previously tested for the M170 mutation, the relative references are also reported. The Turkish sample includes also data from Cinnioğlu et al. (2004). The Udmurt samples are from the present study (89 individuals with 0 Hg I individuals) and from Semino et al. (2000).
dSemino et al. (2000).
eCapelli et al. (2003).
fSanchez et al. (2003).
gFrancalacci et al. (2003).
hBarać et al. (2003).
iPassarino et al. (2002).
jTambets et al. (2004).
kCinnioğlu et al. (2004).
lAl-Zahery et al. (2003).
mNasidze et al. (2003). Northern Caucasians include Kabardinians, Ingushians, Chechenians, and Abazinians; southern Caucasians include Armenians, Georgians, and Azerbaijanis.
nWells et al. (2001). Central Asians are a pool of populations from Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgystan.