• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of biophysjLink to Publisher's site
Biophys J. Aug 1997; 73(2): 1110–1117.
PMCID: PMC1181007

High-gain, low-noise amplification in olfactory transduction.

Abstract

It is desirable that sensory systems use high-gain, low-noise amplification to convert weak stimuli into detectable signals. Here it is shown that a pair of receptor currents underlying vertebrate olfactory transduction constitutes such a scheme. The primary receptor current is an influx of Na+ and Ca2+ through cAMP-gated channels in the olfactory cilia. External divalent cations improve the signal-to-noise properties of this current, reducing the mean current and the current variance. As Ca2+ enters the cilium, it gates Cl- channels, activating a secondary depolarizing receptor current. This current amplifies the primary current, but introduces little additional noise. The system of two currents plus divalent cations in the mucus produces a large receptor current with very low noise.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Boekhoff I, Tareilus E, Strotmann J, Breer H. Rapid activation of alternative second messenger pathways in olfactory cilia from rats by different odorants. EMBO J. 1990 Aug;9(8):2453–2458. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Buck L, Axel R. A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition. Cell. 1991 Apr 5;65(1):175–187. [PubMed]
  • Firestein S, Shepherd GM. Interaction of anionic and cationic currents leads to a voltage dependence in the odor response of olfactory receptor neurons. J Neurophysiol. 1995 Feb;73(2):562–567. [PubMed]
  • Firestein S, Shepherd GM, Werblin FS. Time course of the membrane current underlying sensory transduction in salamander olfactory receptor neurones. J Physiol. 1990 Nov;430:135–158. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Frings S, Lynch JW, Lindemann B. Properties of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels mediating olfactory transduction. Activation, selectivity, and blockage. J Gen Physiol. 1992 Jul;100(1):45–67. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Frings S, Seifert R, Godde M, Kaupp UB. Profoundly different calcium permeation and blockage determine the specific function of distinct cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Neuron. 1995 Jul;15(1):169–179. [PubMed]
  • Joshi H, Getchell ML, Zielinski B, Getchell TV. Spectrophotometric determination of cation concentrations in olfactory mucus. Neurosci Lett. 1987 Dec 4;82(3):321–326. [PubMed]
  • Kleene SJ. Basal conductance of frog olfactory cilia. Pflugers Arch. 1992 Jul;421(4):374–380. [PubMed]
  • Kleene SJ. The cyclic nucleotide-activated conductance in olfactory cilia: effects of cytoplasmic Mg2+ and Ca2+. J Membr Biol. 1993 Feb;131(3):237–243. [PubMed]
  • Kleene SJ. Origin of the chloride current in olfactory transduction. Neuron. 1993 Jul;11(1):123–132. [PubMed]
  • Kleene SJ. Block by external calcium and magnesium of the cyclic-nucleotide-activated current in olfactory cilia. Neuroscience. 1995 Jun;66(4):1001–1008. [PubMed]
  • Kleene SJ, Cejtin HC. Solving buffering problems with Mathematica software. Anal Biochem. 1994 Nov 1;222(2):310–314. [PubMed]
  • Kleene SJ, Gesteland RC. Calcium-activated chloride conductance in frog olfactory cilia. J Neurosci. 1991 Nov;11(11):3624–3629. [PubMed]
  • Kleene SJ, Gesteland RC, Bryant SH. An electrophysiological survey of frog olfactory cilia. J Exp Biol. 1994 Oct;195:307–328. [PubMed]
  • Kleene SJ, Pun RY. Persistence of the olfactory receptor current in a wide variety of extracellular environments. J Neurophysiol. 1996 Apr;75(4):1386–1391. [PubMed]
  • Kurahashi T. Activation by odorants of cation-selective conductance in the olfactory receptor cell isolated from the newt. J Physiol. 1989 Dec;419:177–192. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kurahashi T, Kaneko A. Gating properties of the cAMP-gated channel in toad olfactory receptor cells. J Physiol. 1993 Jul;466:287–302. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kurahashi T, Yau KW. Co-existence of cationic and chloride components in odorant-induced current of vertebrate olfactory receptor cells. Nature. 1993 May 6;363(6424):71–74. [PubMed]
  • Larsson HP, Kleene SJ, Lecar H. Noise analysis of ion channels in non-space-clamped cables: estimates of channel parameters in olfactory cilia. Biophys J. 1997 Mar;72(3):1193–1203. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lowe G, Gold GH. The spatial distributions of odorant sensitivity and odorant-induced currents in salamander olfactory receptor cells. J Physiol. 1991 Oct;442:147–168. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lowe G, Gold GH. Nonlinear amplification by calcium-dependent chloride channels in olfactory receptor cells. Nature. 1993 Nov 18;366(6452):283–286. [PubMed]
  • Lowe G, Gold GH. Olfactory transduction is intrinsically noisy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Aug 15;92(17):7864–7868. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lowe G, Nakamura T, Gold GH. Adenylate cyclase mediates olfactory transduction for a wide variety of odorants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jul;86(14):5641–5645. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nakamura T, Gold GH. A cyclic nucleotide-gated conductance in olfactory receptor cilia. Nature. 325(6103):442–444. [PubMed]
  • Pace U, Hanski E, Salomon Y, Lancet D. Odorant-sensitive adenylate cyclase may mediate olfactory reception. Nature. 1985 Jul 18;316(6025):255–258. [PubMed]
  • Picones A, Korenbrot JI. Spontaneous, ligand-independent activity of the cGMP-gated ion channels in cone photoreceptors of fish. J Physiol. 1995 Jun 15;485(Pt 3):699–714. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shirley SG, Robinson CJ, Dickinson K, Aujla R, Dodd GH. Olfactory adenylate cyclase of the rat. Stimulation by odorants and inhibition by Ca2+. Biochem J. 1986 Dec 1;240(2):605–607. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sklar PB, Anholt RR, Snyder SH. The odorant-sensitive adenylate cyclase of olfactory receptor cells. Differential stimulation by distinct classes of odorants. J Biol Chem. 1986 Nov 25;261(33):15538–15543. [PubMed]
  • Yau KW, Baylor DA. Cyclic GMP-activated conductance of retinal photoreceptor cells. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1989;12:289–327. [PubMed]
  • Zhainazarov AB, Ache BW. Odor-induced currents in Xenopus olfactory receptor cells measured with perforated-patch recording. J Neurophysiol. 1995 Jul;74(1):479–483. [PubMed]
  • Zufall F, Firestein S. Divalent cations block the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel of olfactory receptor neurons. J Neurophysiol. 1993 May;69(5):1758–1768. [PubMed]
  • Zufall F, Shepherd GM, Firestein S. Inhibition of the olfactory cyclic nucleotide gated ion channel by intracellular calcium. Proc Biol Sci. 1991 Dec 23;246(1317):225–230. [PubMed]

Articles from Biophysical Journal are provided here courtesy of The Biophysical Society

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...