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Biochem J. Apr 1970; 117(3): 499–503.
PMCID: PMC1178952

Equilibrium relations between the cytoplasmic adenine nucleotide system and nicotinamide–adenine nucleotide system in rat liver


1. The ratio [ATP]/[ADP][Pi], as measured by direct determination of the three components in rat liver, was found in various nutritional states to have approximately the same value as the ratio [ATP]/[ADP][Pi] calculated from the concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glyceraldehyde phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate on the assumption that lactate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase are at near-equilibrium in the liver. This implies that the redox state of the NAD couple in the cytoplasm is linked to, and partially controlled by, the phosphorylation state of the adenine nucleotides. 2. The combined equilibrium constant of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase reactions at 38°C and I0.25, was found to be 5.9×10−6. 3. The fall of the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio in starvation and other situations is taken to be the consequence of a primary fall of the [ATP]/[ADP][HPO42−] ratio.

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Selected References

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  • BURTON K, WILSON TH. The free-energy changes for the reduction of diphosphopyridine nucleotide and the dehydrogenation of L-malate and L-glycerol 1-phosphate. Biochem J. 1953 Apr;54(1):86–94. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • CORI CF, VELICK SF, CORI GT. The combination of diphosphopyridine nucleotide with glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1950 Jan;4(1-3):160–169. [PubMed]
  • Veech RL, Eggleston LV, Krebs HA. The redox state of free nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate in the cytoplasm of rat liver. Biochem J. 1969 Dec;115(4):609–619. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Williamson DH, Lund P, Krebs HA. The redox state of free nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of rat liver. Biochem J. 1967 May;103(2):514–527. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

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