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Biochem J. Aug 1972; 128(5): 1089–1096.
PMCID: PMC1173996

Interrelationship and control of glucose metabolism and lipogenesis in isolated fat-cells. Effect of the amount of glucose uptake on the rates of the pentose phosphate cycle and of fatty acid synthesis

Abstract

In order to study the quantitative relationship between fatty acid synthesis and pentose phosphate-cycle activity under different hormonal and dietary conditions affecting the extent of glucose uptake, cells isolated from rat epididymal adipose tissue were incubated in bicarbonate buffer containing [U-14C]-, [1-14C]- or [6-14C]-glucose. From the amount of glucose taken up, the production of lactate and pyruvate, and the incorporation of 14C from differently labelled [14C]glucose into CO2, fatty acids and glyceride glycerol, the rates of glucose metabolism via different pathways and the extent of lipogenesis under various experimental conditions were determined. The contribution of the pentose phosphate-cycle to glucose metabolism under normal conditions was calculated to be 8%. Starvation and re-feeding, and the presence of insulin, caused an enhancement of glucose uptake, pentose phosphate-cycle activity and fatty acid synthesis. Plots of both pentose phosphate-cycle activity and fatty acid synthesis versus glucose uptake revealed that the extent of glucose uptake, over a wide range, determines the rates of fatty acid synthesis and glucose metabolism via the pentose phosphate cycle. A balance of formation and production of nicotinamide nucleotides in the cytoplasm was established. The total amount of cytoplasmic NADH and NADPH formed was only in slight excess over the hydrogen equivalents required for the synthesis of fatty acids, glyceride glycerol and lactate. Except in cells from starved animals, the pentose phosphate cycle was found to provide only about 60% of the NADPH required for fatty acid synthesis. The results are discussed with respect to an overall control of the different metabolic and biosynthetic reactions in the fat-cells by the amount of glucose transported into the cell.

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Selected References

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