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EMBO J. Oct 15, 1999; 18(20): 5548–5558.
PMCID: PMC1171623

Blue light activates the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase by phosphorylation of the C-terminus in stomatal guard cells.


The opening of stomata, which is driven by the accumulation of K(+) salt in guard cells, is induced by blue light (BL). The BL activates the H(+) pump; however, the mechanism by which the perception of BL is transduced into the pump activation remains unknown. We present evidence that the pump is the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and that BL activates the H(+)-ATPase via phosphorylation. A pulse of BL (30 s, 100 micromol/m(2)/s) increased ATP hydrolysis by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and H(+) pumping in Vicia guard cell protoplasts with a similar time course. The H(+)-ATPase was phosphorylated reversibly by BL, and the phosphorylation levels paralleled the ATP hydrolytic activity. The phosphorylation occurred exclusively in the C-termini of H(+)-ATPases on both serine and threonine residues in two isoproteins of H(+)-ATPase in guard cells. An endogenous 14-3-3 protein was co-precipitated with H(+)-ATPase, and the recombinant 14-3-3 protein bound to the phosphorylated C-termini of H(+)-ATPases. These findings demonstrate that BL activates the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase via phosphorylation of the C-terminus by a serine/threonine protein kinase, and that the 14-3-3 protein has a key role in the activation.

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