• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of embojLink to Publisher's site
EMBO J. Feb 1, 1999; 18(3): 501–511.
PMCID: PMC1171143

Leukocyte polarization in cell migration and immune interactions.


Cell migration plays a key role in a wide variety of biological phenomena. This process is particularly important for leukocyte function and the inflammatory response. Prior to migration leukocytes undergo polarization, with the formation of a lamellipodium at the leading edge and a uropod at the trailing edge. This cell shape allows them to convert cytoskeletal forces into net cell-body displacement. Leukocyte chemoattractants, including chemokines, provide directional cues for leukocyte motility, and concomitantly induce polarization. Chemoattractant receptors, integrins and other adhesion molecules, cytoskeletal proteins and intracellular regulatory molecules change their cellular localization during cell polarization. A complex system of signal transduction molecules, including tyrosine kinases, lipid kinases, second messengers and members of the Rho family of small GTPases is thought to regulate the cytoskeletal rearrangements underlying leukocyte polarization and migration. The elucidation of the mechanisms and signals that control this complex reorganization will lead to a better understanding of critical questions in cell biology of leukocyte migration and polarity.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (382K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Allen WE, Jones GE, Pollard JW, Ridley AJ. Rho, Rac and Cdc42 regulate actin organization and cell adhesion in macrophages. J Cell Sci. 1997 Mar;110(Pt 6):707–720. [PubMed]
  • Allen WE, Zicha D, Ridley AJ, Jones GE. A role for Cdc42 in macrophage chemotaxis. J Cell Biol. 1998 Jun 1;141(5):1147–1157. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Amano M, Chihara K, Kimura K, Fukata Y, Nakamura N, Matsuura Y, Kaibuchi K. Formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions enhanced by Rho-kinase. Science. 1997 Feb 28;275(5304):1308–1311. [PubMed]
  • Arrieumerlou C, Donnadieu E, Brennan P, Keryer G, Bismuth G, Cantrell D, Trautmann A. Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Rac in membrane ruffling induced by IL-2 in T cells. Eur J Immunol. 1998 Jun;28(6):1877–1885. [PubMed]
  • Avraham S, Avraham H. Characterization of the novel focal adhesion kinase RAFTK in hematopoietic cells. Leuk Lymphoma. 1997 Oct;27(3-4):247–256. [PubMed]
  • Baggiolini M. Chemokines and leukocyte traffic. Nature. 1998 Apr 9;392(6676):565–568. [PubMed]
  • Baggiolini M, Dewald B, Moser B. Human chemokines: an update. Annu Rev Immunol. 1997;15:675–705. [PubMed]
  • Bokoch GM. Chemoattractant signaling and leukocyte activation. Blood. 1995 Sep 1;86(5):1649–1660. [PubMed]
  • Lauffenburger DA, Horwitz AF. Cell migration: a physically integrated molecular process. Cell. 1996 Feb 9;84(3):359–369. [PubMed]
  • Brundage RA, Fogarty KE, Tuft RA, Fay FS. Calcium gradients underlying polarization and chemotaxis of eosinophils. Science. 1991 Nov 1;254(5032):703–706. [PubMed]
  • Burridge K, Fath K, Kelly T, Nuckolls G, Turner C. Focal adhesions: transmembrane junctions between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1988;4:487–525. [PubMed]
  • Burridge K, Turner CE, Romer LH. Tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and pp125FAK accompanies cell adhesion to extracellular matrix: a role in cytoskeletal assembly. J Cell Biol. 1992 Nov;119(4):893–903. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Butcher EC, Picker LJ. Lymphocyte homing and homeostasis. Science. 1996 Apr 5;272(5258):60–66. [PubMed]
  • Campanero MR, del Pozo MA, Arroyo AG, Sánchez-Mateos P, Hernández-Caselles T, Craig A, Pulido R, Sánchez-Madrid F. ICAM-3 interacts with LFA-1 and regulates the LFA-1/ICAM-1 cell adhesion pathway. J Cell Biol. 1993 Nov;123(4):1007–1016. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Campanero MR, Sánchez-Mateos P, del Pozo MA, Sánchez-Madrid F. ICAM-3 regulates lymphocyte morphology and integrin-mediated T cell interaction with endothelial cell and extracellular matrix ligands. J Cell Biol. 1994 Nov;127(3):867–878. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coates TD, Watts RG, Hartman R, Howard TH. Relationship of F-actin distribution to development of polar shape in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. J Cell Biol. 1992 May;117(4):765–774. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Conrad PA, Giuliano KA, Fisher G, Collins K, Matsudaira PT, Taylor DL. Relative distribution of actin, myosin I, and myosin II during the wound healing response of fibroblasts. J Cell Biol. 1993 Mar;120(6):1381–1391. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chant J. Generation of cell polarity in yeast. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1996 Aug;8(4):557–565. [PubMed]
  • Chong LD, Traynor-Kaplan A, Bokoch GM, Schwartz MA. The small GTP-binding protein Rho regulates a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase in mammalian cells. Cell. 1994 Nov 4;79(3):507–513. [PubMed]
  • Cook TA, Nagasaki T, Gundersen GG. Rho guanosine triphosphatase mediates the selective stabilization of microtubules induced by lysophosphatidic acid. J Cell Biol. 1998 Apr 6;141(1):175–185. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Davis CB, Dikic I, Unutmaz D, Hill CM, Arthos J, Siani MA, Thompson DA, Schlessinger J, Littman DR. Signal transduction due to HIV-1 envelope interactions with chemokine receptors CXCR4 or CCR5. J Exp Med. 1997 Nov 17;186(10):1793–1798. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • del Pozo MA, Sánchez-Mateos P, Nieto M, Sánchez-Madrid F. Chemokines regulate cellular polarization and adhesion receptor redistribution during lymphocyte interaction with endothelium and extracellular matrix. Involvement of cAMP signaling pathway. J Cell Biol. 1995 Oct;131(2):495–508. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • del Pozo MA, Cabañas C, Montoya MC, Ager A, Sánchez-Mateos P, Sánchez-Madrid F. ICAMs redistributed by chemokines to cellular uropods as a mechanism for recruitment of T lymphocytes. J Cell Biol. 1997 Apr 21;137(2):493–508. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Derian CK, Santulli RJ, Rao PE, Solomon HF, Barrett JA. Inhibition of chemotactic peptide-induced neutrophil adhesion to vascular endothelium by cAMP modulators. J Immunol. 1995 Jan 1;154(1):308–317. [PubMed]
  • Dikic I, Dikic I, Schlessinger J. Identification of a new Pyk2 isoform implicated in chemokine and antigen receptor signaling. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jun 5;273(23):14301–14308. [PubMed]
  • Doré M, Burns AR, Hughes BJ, Entman ML, Smith CW. Chemoattractant-induced changes in surface expression and redistribution of a functional ligand for P-selectin on neutrophils. Blood. 1996 Mar 1;87(5):2029–2037. [PubMed]
  • Dransfield DT, Bradford AJ, Smith J, Martin M, Roy C, Mangeat PH, Goldenring JR. Ezrin is a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein. EMBO J. 1997 Jan 2;16(1):35–43. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Drgonová J, Drgon T, Tanaka K, Kollár R, Chen GC, Ford RA, Chan CS, Takai Y, Cabib E. Rho1p, a yeast protein at the interface between cell polarization and morphogenesis. Science. 1996 Apr 12;272(5259):277–279. [PubMed]
  • Drubin DG, Nelson WJ. Origins of cell polarity. Cell. 1996 Feb 9;84(3):335–344. [PubMed]
  • Dustin ML, Bromley SK, Kan Z, Peterson DA, Unanue ER. Antigen receptor engagement delivers a stop signal to migrating T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 15;94(8):3909–3913. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dustin ML, Olszowy MW, Holdorf AD, Li J, Bromley S, Desai N, Widder P, Rosenberger F, van der Merwe PA, Allen PM, et al. A novel adaptor protein orchestrates receptor patterning and cytoskeletal polarity in T-cell contacts. Cell. 1998 Sep 4;94(5):667–677. [PubMed]
  • Dutartre H, Davoust J, Gorvel JP, Chavrier P. Cytokinesis arrest and redistribution of actin-cytoskeleton regulatory components in cells expressing the Rho GTPase CDC42Hs. J Cell Sci. 1996 Feb;109(Pt 2):367–377. [PubMed]
  • Eaton S, Auvinen P, Luo L, Jan YN, Simons K. CDC42 and Rac1 control different actin-dependent processes in the Drosophila wing disc epithelium. J Cell Biol. 1995 Oct;131(1):151–164. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Entschladen F, Niggemann B, Zänker KS, Friedl P. Differential requirement of protein tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C in the regulation of T cell locomotion in three-dimensional collagen matrices. J Immunol. 1997 Oct 1;159(7):3203–3210. [PubMed]
  • Estreicher A, Mühlhauser J, Carpentier JL, Orci L, Vassalli JD. The receptor for urokinase type plasminogen activator polarizes expression of the protease to the leading edge of migrating monocytes and promotes degradation of enzyme inhibitor complexes. J Cell Biol. 1990 Aug;111(2):783–792. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Evangelista M, Blundell K, Longtine MS, Chow CJ, Adames N, Pringle JR, Peter M, Boone C. Bni1p, a yeast formin linking cdc42p and the actin cytoskeleton during polarized morphogenesis. Science. 1997 Apr 4;276(5309):118–122. [PubMed]
  • Foxman EF, Campbell JJ, Butcher EC. Multistep navigation and the combinatorial control of leukocyte chemotaxis. J Cell Biol. 1997 Dec 1;139(5):1349–1360. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Friedl P, Entschladen F, Conrad C, Niggemann B, Zänker KS. CD4+ T lymphocytes migrating in three-dimensional collagen lattices lack focal adhesions and utilize beta1 integrin-independent strategies for polarization, interaction with collagen fibers and locomotion. Eur J Immunol. 1998 Aug;28(8):2331–2343. [PubMed]
  • Fukata Y, Kimura K, Oshiro N, Saya H, Matsuura Y, Kaibuchi K. Association of the myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase and moesin: dual regulation of moesin phosphorylation by Rho-associated kinase and myosin phosphatase. J Cell Biol. 1998 Apr 20;141(2):409–418. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gilbert SH, Perry K, Fay FS. Mediation of chemoattractant-induced changes in [Ca2+]i and cell shape, polarity, and locomotion by InsP3, DAG, and protein kinase C in newt eosinophils. J Cell Biol. 1994 Oct;127(2):489–503. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goodson HV, Anderson BL, Warrick HM, Pon LA, Spudich JA. Synthetic lethality screen identifies a novel yeast myosin I gene (MYO5): myosin I proteins are required for polarization of the actin cytoskeleton. J Cell Biol. 1996 Jun;133(6):1277–1291. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hahn K, DeBiasio R, Taylor DL. Patterns of elevated free calcium and calmodulin activation in living cells. Nature. 1992 Oct 22;359(6397):736–738. [PubMed]
  • Hall A. Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. Science. 1998 Jan 23;279(5350):509–514. [PubMed]
  • Hamm HE, Gilchrist A. Heterotrimeric G proteins. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1996 Apr;8(2):189–196. [PubMed]
  • Hartwig JH, Bokoch GM, Carpenter CL, Janmey PA, Taylor LA, Toker A, Stossel TP. Thrombin receptor ligation and activated Rac uncap actin filament barbed ends through phosphoinositide synthesis in permeabilized human platelets. Cell. 1995 Aug 25;82(4):643–653. [PubMed]
  • Heidemann SR, Buxbaum RE. Cell crawling: first the motor, now the transmission. J Cell Biol. 1998 Apr 6;141(1):1–4. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Helander TS, Carpén O, Turunen O, Kovanen PE, Vaheri A, Timonen T. ICAM-2 redistributed by ezrin as a target for killer cells. Nature. 1996 Jul 18;382(6588):265–268. [PubMed]
  • Hendey B, Klee CB, Maxfield FR. Inhibition of neutrophil chemokinesis on vitronectin by inhibitors of calcineurin. Science. 1992 Oct 9;258(5080):296–299. [PubMed]
  • Hirao M, Sato N, Kondo T, Yonemura S, Monden M, Sasaki T, Takai Y, Tsukita S, Tsukita S. Regulation mechanism of ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) protein/plasma membrane association: possible involvement of phosphatidylinositol turnover and Rho-dependent signaling pathway. J Cell Biol. 1996 Oct;135(1):37–51. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Howard TH, Oresajo CO. The kinetics of chemotactic peptide-induced change in F-actin content, F-actin distribution, and the shape of neutrophils. J Cell Biol. 1985 Sep;101(3):1078–1085. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Huttenlocher A, Sandborg RR, Horwitz AF. Adhesion in cell migration. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1995 Oct;7(5):697–706. [PubMed]
  • Huttenlocher A, Palecek SP, Lu Q, Zhang W, Mellgren RL, Lauffenburger DA, Ginsberg MH, Horwitz AF. Regulation of cell migration by the calcium-dependent protease calpain. J Biol Chem. 1997 Dec 26;272(52):32719–32722. [PubMed]
  • Janmey PA. Phosphoinositides and calcium as regulators of cellular actin assembly and disassembly. Annu Rev Physiol. 1994;56:169–191. [PubMed]
  • Jay PY, Pham PA, Wong SA, Elson EL. A mechanical function of myosin II in cell motility. J Cell Sci. 1995 Jan;108(Pt 1):387–393. [PubMed]
  • Jesaitis AJ, Erickson RW, Klotz KN, Bommakanti RK, Siemsen DW. Functional molecular complexes of human N-formyl chemoattractant receptors and actin. J Immunol. 1993 Nov 15;151(10):5653–5665. [PubMed]
  • Joneson T, McDonough M, Bar-Sagi D, Van Aelst L. RAC regulation of actin polymerization and proliferation by a pathway distinct from Jun kinase. Science. 1996 Nov 22;274(5291):1374–1376. [PubMed]
  • Kaga S, Ragg S, Rogers KA, Ochi A. Stimulation of CD28 with B7-2 promotes focal adhesion-like cell contacts where Rho family small G proteins accumulate in T cells. J Immunol. 1998 Jan 1;160(1):24–27. [PubMed]
  • Kammer GM, Boehm CA, Rudolph SA, Schultz LA. Mobility of the human T lymphocyte surface molecules CD3, CD4, and CD8: regulation by a cAMP-dependent pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Feb;85(3):792–796. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Keely PJ, Westwick JK, Whitehead IP, Der CJ, Parise LV. Cdc42 and Rac1 induce integrin-mediated cell motility and invasiveness through PI(3)K. Nature. 1997 Dec 11;390(6660):632–636. [PubMed]
  • Kimura K, Ito M, Amano M, Chihara K, Fukata Y, Nakafuku M, Yamamori B, Feng J, Nakano T, Okawa K, et al. Regulation of myosin phosphatase by Rho and Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase) Science. 1996 Jul 12;273(5272):245–248. [PubMed]
  • Kindzelskii AL, Laska ZO, Todd RF, 3rd, Petty HR. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor reversibly dissociates from complement receptor type 3 (alpha M beta 2' CD11b/CD18) during neutrophil polarization. J Immunol. 1996 Jan 1;156(1):297–309. [PubMed]
  • Kundra V, Escobedo JA, Kazlauskas A, Kim HK, Rhee SG, Williams LT, Zetter BR. Regulation of chemotaxis by the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta. Nature. 1994 Feb 3;367(6462):474–476. [PubMed]
  • Kupfer A, Singer SJ. Cell biology of cytotoxic and helper T cell functions: immunofluorescence microscopic studies of single cells and cell couples. Annu Rev Immunol. 1989;7:309–337. [PubMed]
  • Kupfer H, Monks CR, Kupfer A. Small splenic B cells that bind to antigen-specific T helper (Th) cells and face the site of cytokine production in the Th cells selectively proliferate: immunofluorescence microscopic studies of Th-B antigen-presenting cell interactions. J Exp Med. 1994 May 1;179(5):1507–1515. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lang P, Gesbert F, Delespine-Carmagnat M, Stancou R, Pouchelet M, Bertoglio J. Protein kinase A phosphorylation of RhoA mediates the morphological and functional effects of cyclic AMP in cytotoxic lymphocytes. EMBO J. 1996 Feb 1;15(3):510–519. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laudanna C, Campbell JJ, Butcher EC. Role of Rho in chemoattractant-activated leukocyte adhesion through integrins. Science. 1996 Feb 16;271(5251):981–983. [PubMed]
  • Lauffenburger DA, Horwitz AF. Cell migration: a physically integrated molecular process. Cell. 1996 Feb 9;84(3):359–369. [PubMed]
  • Lawson MA, Maxfield FR. Ca(2+)- and calcineurin-dependent recycling of an integrin to the front of migrating neutrophils. Nature. 1995 Sep 7;377(6544):75–79. [PubMed]
  • Li X, Hunter D, Morris J, Haskill JS, Earp HS. A calcium-dependent tyrosine kinase splice variant in human monocytes. Activation by a two-stage process involving adherence and a subsequent intracellular signal. J Biol Chem. 1998 Apr 17;273(16):9361–9364. [PubMed]
  • Littman DR. Chemokine receptors: keys to AIDS pathogenesis? Cell. 1998 May 29;93(5):677–680. [PubMed]
  • Loetscher P, Seitz M, Baggiolini M, Moser B. Interleukin-2 regulates CC chemokine receptor expression and chemotactic responsiveness in T lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 1996 Aug 1;184(2):569–577. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lorant DE, McEver RP, McIntyre TM, Moore KL, Prescott SM, Zimmerman GA. Activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes reduces their adhesion to P-selectin and causes redistribution of ligands for P-selectin on their surfaces. J Clin Invest. 1995 Jul;96(1):171–182. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lowin-Kropf B, Shapiro VS, Weiss A. Cytoskeletal polarization of T cells is regulated by an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-dependent mechanism. J Cell Biol. 1998 Feb 23;140(4):861–871. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lukacs NW, Strieter RM, Elner V, Evanoff HL, Burdick MD, Kunkel SL. Production of chemokines, interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, during monocyte: endothelial cell interactions. Blood. 1995 Oct 1;86(7):2767–2773. [PubMed]
  • Luster AD. Chemokines--chemotactic cytokines that mediate inflammation. N Engl J Med. 1998 Feb 12;338(7):436–445. [PubMed]
  • McKay DA, Kusel JR, Wilkinson PC. Studies of chemotactic factor-induced polarity in human neutrophils. Lipid mobility, receptor distribution and the time-sequence of polarization. J Cell Sci. 1991 Nov;100(Pt 3):473–479. [PubMed]
  • Mackay DJ, Esch F, Furthmayr H, Hall A. Rho- and rac-dependent assembly of focal adhesion complexes and actin filaments in permeabilized fibroblasts: an essential role for ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins. J Cell Biol. 1997 Aug 25;138(4):927–938. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mantel C, Aronica S, Luo Z, Marshall MS, Kim YJ, Cooper S, Hague N, Broxmeyer HE. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha enhances growth factor-stimulated phosphatidylcholine metabolism and increases cAMP levels in the human growth factor-dependent cell line M07e, events associated with growth suppression. J Immunol. 1995 Mar 1;154(5):2342–2350. [PubMed]
  • Matsui T, Amano M, Yamamoto T, Chihara K, Nakafuku M, Ito M, Nakano T, Okawa K, Iwamatsu A, Kaibuchi K. Rho-associated kinase, a novel serine/threonine kinase, as a putative target for small GTP binding protein Rho. EMBO J. 1996 May 1;15(9):2208–2216. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matsui T, Maeda M, Doi Y, Yonemura S, Amano M, Kaibuchi K, Tsukita S, Tsukita S. Rho-kinase phosphorylates COOH-terminal threonines of ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins and regulates their head-to-tail association. J Cell Biol. 1998 Feb 9;140(3):647–657. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mermall V, Post PL, Mooseker MS. Unconventional myosins in cell movement, membrane traffic, and signal transduction. Science. 1998 Jan 23;279(5350):527–533. [PubMed]
  • Miki H, Sasaki T, Takai Y, Takenawa T. Induction of filopodium formation by a WASP-related actin-depolymerizing protein N-WASP. Nature. 1998 Jan 1;391(6662):93–96. [PubMed]
  • Mitchison TJ, Cramer LP. Actin-based cell motility and cell locomotion. Cell. 1996 Feb 9;84(3):371–379. [PubMed]
  • Molina IJ, Kenney DM, Rosen FS, Remold-O'Donnell E. T cell lines characterize events in the pathogenesis of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. J Exp Med. 1992 Sep 1;176(3):867–874. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Monks CR, Kupfer H, Tamir I, Barlow A, Kupfer A. Selective modulation of protein kinase C-theta during T-cell activation. Nature. 1997 Jan 2;385(6611):83–86. [PubMed]
  • Monks CR, Freiberg BA, Kupfer H, Sciaky N, Kupfer A. Three-dimensional segregation of supramolecular activation clusters in T cells. Nature. 1998 Sep 3;395(6697):82–86. [PubMed]
  • Myers SJ, Wong LM, Charo IF. Signal transduction and ligand specificity of the human monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 receptor in transfected embryonic kidney cells. J Biol Chem. 1995 Mar 17;270(11):5786–5792. [PubMed]
  • Negulescu PA, Krasieva TB, Khan A, Kerschbaum HH, Cahalan MD. Polarity of T cell shape, motility, and sensitivity to antigen. Immunity. 1996 May;4(5):421–430. [PubMed]
  • Nieto M, Frade JM, Sancho D, Mellado M, Martinez-A C, Sánchez-Madrid F. Polarization of chemokine receptors to the leading edge during lymphocyte chemotaxis. J Exp Med. 1997 Jul 7;186(1):153–158. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nieto M, Navarro F, Perez-Villar JJ, del Pozo MA, González-Amaro R, Mellado M, Frade JM, Martínez-A C, López-Botet M, Sánchez-Madrid F. Roles of chemokines and receptor polarization in NK-target cell interactions. J Immunol. 1998 Oct 1;161(7):3330–3339. [PubMed]
  • Niggemann B, Maaser K, Lü H, Kroczek R, Zänker KS, Friedl P. Locomotory phenotypes of human tumor cell lines and T lymphocytes in a three-dimensional collagen lattice. Cancer Lett. 1997 Oct 14;118(2):173–180. [PubMed]
  • Nobes CD, Hall A. Rho, rac, and cdc42 GTPases regulate the assembly of multimolecular focal complexes associated with actin stress fibers, lamellipodia, and filopodia. Cell. 1995 Apr 7;81(1):53–62. [PubMed]
  • Nobes CD, Lauritzen I, Mattei MG, Paris S, Hall A, Chardin P. A new member of the Rho family, Rnd1, promotes disassembly of actin filament structures and loss of cell adhesion. J Cell Biol. 1998 Apr 6;141(1):187–197. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ochs HD, Slichter SJ, Harker LA, Von Behrens WE, Clark RA, Wedgwood RJ. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: studies of lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets. Blood. 1980 Feb;55(2):243–252. [PubMed]
  • Oppenheim JJ, Zachariae CO, Mukaida N, Matsushima K. Properties of the novel proinflammatory supergene "intercrine" cytokine family. Annu Rev Immunol. 1991;9:617–648. [PubMed]
  • Palecek SP, Loftus JC, Ginsberg MH, Lauffenburger DA, Horwitz AF. Integrin-ligand binding properties govern cell migration speed through cell-substratum adhesiveness. Nature. 1997 Feb 6;385(6616):537–540. [PubMed]
  • Palecek SP, Huttenlocher A, Horwitz AF, Lauffenburger DA. Physical and biochemical regulation of integrin release during rear detachment of migrating cells. J Cell Sci. 1998 Apr;111(Pt 7):929–940. [PubMed]
  • Pasternak C, Spudich JA, Elson EL. Capping of surface receptors and concomitant cortical tension are generated by conventional myosin. Nature. 1989 Oct 12;341(6242):549–551. [PubMed]
  • Pietromonaco SF, Simons PC, Altman A, Elias L. Protein kinase C-theta phosphorylation of moesin in the actin-binding sequence. J Biol Chem. 1998 Mar 27;273(13):7594–7603. [PubMed]
  • Ratner S, Sherrod WS, Lichlyter D. Microtubule retraction into the uropod and its role in T cell polarization and motility. J Immunol. 1997 Aug 1;159(3):1063–1067. [PubMed]
  • Reif K, Cantrell DA. Networking Rho family GTPases in lymphocytes. Immunity. 1998 Apr;8(4):395–401. [PubMed]
  • Rollins BJ. Chemokines. Blood. 1997 Aug 1;90(3):909–928. [PubMed]
  • Rosenman SJ, Ganji AA, Tedder TF, Gallatin WM. Syn-capping of human T lymphocyte adhesion/activation molecules and their redistribution during interaction with endothelial cells. J Leukoc Biol. 1993 Jan;53(1):1–10. [PubMed]
  • Rubino S, Fighetti M, Unger E, Cappuccinelli P. Location of actin, myosin, and microtubular structures during directed locomotion of Dictyostelium amebae. J Cell Biol. 1984 Feb;98(2):382–390. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schaller MD, Parsons JT. Focal adhesion kinase and associated proteins. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1994 Oct;6(5):705–710. [PubMed]
  • Selden SC, Pollard TD. Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins regulates their interaction with actin filaments. J Biol Chem. 1983 Jun 10;258(11):7064–7071. [PubMed]
  • Sells MA, Knaus UG, Bagrodia S, Ambrose DM, Bokoch GM, Chernoff J. Human p21-activated kinase (Pak1) regulates actin organization in mammalian cells. Curr Biol. 1997 Mar 1;7(3):202–210. [PubMed]
  • Serrador JM, Alonso-Lebrero JL, del Pozo MA, Furthmayr H, Schwartz-Albiez R, Calvo J, Lozano F, Sánchez-Madrid F. Moesin interacts with the cytoplasmic region of intercellular adhesion molecule-3 and is redistributed to the uropod of T lymphocytes during cell polarization. J Cell Biol. 1997 Sep 22;138(6):1409–1423. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stossel TP. On the crawling of animal cells. Science. 1993 May 21;260(5111):1086–1094. [PubMed]
  • Springer TA. Traffic signals for lymphocyte recirculation and leukocyte emigration: the multistep paradigm. Cell. 1994 Jan 28;76(2):301–314. [PubMed]
  • Sullivan SJ, Daukas G, Zigmond SH. Asymmetric distribution of the chemotactic peptide receptor on polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Cell Biol. 1984 Oct;99(4 Pt 1):1461–1467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Symons M, Derry JM, Karlak B, Jiang S, Lemahieu V, Mccormick F, Francke U, Abo A. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, a novel effector for the GTPase CDC42Hs, is implicated in actin polymerization. Cell. 1996 Mar 8;84(5):723–734. [PubMed]
  • Taussig R, Gilman AG. Mammalian membrane-bound adenylyl cyclases. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jan 6;270(1):1–4. [PubMed]
  • Tominaga T, Sugie K, Hirata M, Morii N, Fukata J, Uchida A, Imura H, Narumiya S. Inhibition of PMA-induced, LFA-1-dependent lymphocyte aggregation by ADP ribosylation of the small molecular weight GTP binding protein, rho. J Cell Biol. 1993 Mar;120(6):1529–1537. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tsukita S, Oishi K, Sato N, Sagara J, Kawai A, Tsukita S. ERM family members as molecular linkers between the cell surface glycoprotein CD44 and actin-based cytoskeletons. J Cell Biol. 1994 Jul;126(2):391–401. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tsukita S, Yonemura S. ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family: from cytoskeleton to signal transduction. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1997 Feb;9(1):70–75. [PubMed]
  • Turner L, Ward SG, Westwick J. RANTES-activated human T lymphocytes. A role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase. J Immunol. 1995 Sep 1;155(5):2437–2444. [PubMed]
  • Vaheri A, Carpén O, Heiska L, Helander TS, Jäskeläinen J, Majander-Nordenswan P, Sainio M, Timonen T, Turunen O. The ezrin protein family: membrane-cytoskeleton interactions and disease associations. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1997 Oct;9(5):659–666. [PubMed]
  • Valitutti S, Dessing M, Aktories K, Gallati H, Lanzavecchia A. Sustained signaling leading to T cell activation results from prolonged T cell receptor occupancy. Role of T cell actin cytoskeleton. J Exp Med. 1995 Feb 1;181(2):577–584. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ward SG, Bacon K, Westwick J. Chemokines and T lymphocytes: more than an attraction. Immunity. 1998 Jul;9(1):1–11. [PubMed]
  • Wennström S, Siegbahn A, Yokote K, Arvidsson AK, Heldin CH, Mori S, Claesson-Welsh L. Membrane ruffling and chemotaxis transduced by the PDGF beta-receptor require the binding site for phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase. Oncogene. 1994 Feb;9(2):651–660. [PubMed]
  • Wessels D, Soll DR, Knecht D, Loomis WF, De Lozanne A, Spudich J. Cell motility and chemotaxis in Dictyostelium amebae lacking myosin heavy chain. Dev Biol. 1988 Jul;128(1):164–177. [PubMed]
  • Wilkinson PC. The locomotor capacity of human lymphocytes and its enhancement by cell growth. Immunology. 1986 Feb;57(2):281–289. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Woods A, Couchman JR. Protein kinase C involvement in focal adhesion formation. J Cell Sci. 1992 Feb;101(Pt 2):277–290. [PubMed]
  • Xiao Z, Zhang N, Murphy DB, Devreotes PN. Dynamic distribution of chemoattractant receptors in living cells during chemotaxis and persistent stimulation. J Cell Biol. 1997 Oct 20;139(2):365–374. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yonemura S, Nagafuchi A, Sato N, Tsukita S. Concentration of an integral membrane protein, CD43 (leukosialin, sialophorin), in the cleavage furrow through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with actin-based cytoskeletons. J Cell Biol. 1993 Jan;120(2):437–449. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yonemura S, Hirao M, Doi Y, Takahashi N, Kondo T, Tsukita S, Tsukita S. Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins bind to a positively charged amino acid cluster in the juxta-membrane cytoplasmic domain of CD44, CD43, and ICAM-2. J Cell Biol. 1998 Feb 23;140(4):885–895. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zipkin ID, Kindt RM, Kenyon CJ. Role of a new Rho family member in cell migration and axon guidance in C. elegans. Cell. 1997 Sep 5;90(5):883–894. [PubMed]

Articles from The EMBO Journal are provided here courtesy of The European Molecular Biology Organization


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...