Logo of embojLink to Publisher's site
EMBO J. Aug 15, 1997; 16(16): 4973–4982.
PMCID: PMC1170132

A human homolog of the yeast Ssk2/Ssk22 MAP kinase kinase kinases, MTK1, mediates stress-induced activation of the p38 and JNK pathways.

Abstract

A human homolog of the yeast Ssk2 and Ssk22 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKK) was cloned by functional complementation of the osmosensitivity of the yeast ssk2delta ssk22delta sho1delta triple mutant. This kinase, termed MTK1 (MAP Three Kinase 1), is 1607 amino acids long and is structurally highly similar to the yeast Ssk2 and Ssk22 MAPKKKs. In mammalian cells (COS-7 and HeLa), MTK1 overexpression stimulated both the p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways, but not the ERK pathway. MTK1 overexpression also activated the MKK3, MKK6 and SEK1 MAPKKs, but not the MEK1 MAPKK. Furthermore, MTK1 phosphorylated and activated MKK6 and SEK1 in vitro. Overexpression of a dominant-negative MTK1 mutant [MTK1(K/R)] strongly inhibited the activation of the p38 pathway by environmental stresses (osmotic shock, UV and anisomycin), but not the p38 activation by the cytokine TNF-alpha. The dominant-negative MTK1(K/R) had no effect on the activation of the JNK pathway or the ERK pathway. These results indicate that MTK1 is a major mediator of environmental stresses that activate the p38 MAPK pathway, and is also a minor mediator of the JNK pathway.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (675K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Albertyn J, Hohmann S, Thevelein JM, Prior BA. GPD1, which encodes glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, is essential for growth under osmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and its expression is regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol response pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Jun;14(6):4135–4144. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Blank JL, Gerwins P, Elliott EM, Sather S, Johnson GL. Molecular cloning of mitogen-activated protein/ERK kinase kinases (MEKK) 2 and 3. Regulation of sequential phosphorylation pathways involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun kinase. J Biol Chem. 1996 Mar 8;271(10):5361–5368. [PubMed]
  • Boguslawski G. PBS2, a yeast gene encoding a putative protein kinase, interacts with the RAS2 pathway and affects osmotic sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Gen Microbiol. 1992 Nov;138(11):2425–2432. [PubMed]
  • Boguslawski G, Polazzi JO. Complete nucleotide sequence of a gene conferring polymyxin B resistance on yeast: similarity of the predicted polypeptide to protein kinases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Aug;84(16):5848–5852. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976 May 7;72:248–254. [PubMed]
  • Brewster JL, de Valoir T, Dwyer ND, Winter E, Gustin MC. An osmosensing signal transduction pathway in yeast. Science. 1993 Mar 19;259(5102):1760–1763. [PubMed]
  • Christianson TW, Sikorski RS, Dante M, Shero JH, Hieter P. Multifunctional yeast high-copy-number shuttle vectors. Gene. 1992 Jan 2;110(1):119–122. [PubMed]
  • Cobb MH, Goldsmith EJ. How MAP kinases are regulated. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jun 23;270(25):14843–14846. [PubMed]
  • Cooper JA. MAP kinase pathways. Straight and narrow or tortuous and intersecting? Curr Biol. 1994 Dec 1;4(12):1118–1121. [PubMed]
  • Coso OA, Chiariello M, Yu JC, Teramoto H, Crespo P, Xu N, Miki T, Gutkind JS. The small GTP-binding proteins Rac1 and Cdc42 regulate the activity of the JNK/SAPK signaling pathway. Cell. 1995 Jun 30;81(7):1137–1146. [PubMed]
  • Cuenda A, Cohen P, Buée-Scherrer V, Goedert M. Activation of stress-activated protein kinase-3 (SAPK3) by cytokines and cellular stresses is mediated via SAPKK3 (MKK6); comparison of the specificities of SAPK3 and SAPK2 (RK/p38). EMBO J. 1997 Jan 15;16(2):295–305. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Davis RJ. MAPKs: new JNK expands the group. Trends Biochem Sci. 1994 Nov;19(11):470–473. [PubMed]
  • Dérijard B, Hibi M, Wu IH, Barrett T, Su B, Deng T, Karin M, Davis RJ. JNK1: a protein kinase stimulated by UV light and Ha-Ras that binds and phosphorylates the c-Jun activation domain. Cell. 1994 Mar 25;76(6):1025–1037. [PubMed]
  • Rana A, Gallo K, Godowski P, Hirai S, Ohno S, Zon L, Kyriakis JM, Avruch J. The mixed lineage kinase SPRK phosphorylates and activates the stress-activated protein kinase activator, SEK-1. J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 9;271(32):19025–19028. [PubMed]
  • Rose MD, Broach JR. Cloning genes by complementation in yeast. Methods Enzymol. 1991;194:195–230. [PubMed]
  • Rosette C, Karin M. Ultraviolet light and osmotic stress: activation of the JNK cascade through multiple growth factor and cytokine receptors. Science. 1996 Nov 15;274(5290):1194–1197. [PubMed]
  • Gerwins P, Blank JL, Johnson GL. Cloning of a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, MEKK4, that selectively regulates the c-Jun amino terminal kinase pathway. J Biol Chem. 1997 Mar 28;272(13):8288–8295. [PubMed]
  • Rouse J, Cohen P, Trigon S, Morange M, Alonso-Llamazares A, Zamanillo D, Hunt T, Nebreda AR. A novel kinase cascade triggered by stress and heat shock that stimulates MAPKAP kinase-2 and phosphorylation of the small heat shock proteins. Cell. 1994 Sep 23;78(6):1027–1037. [PubMed]
  • Han J, Lee JD, Bibbs L, Ulevitch RJ. A MAP kinase targeted by endotoxin and hyperosmolarity in mammalian cells. Science. 1994 Aug 5;265(5173):808–811. [PubMed]
  • Salmeron A, Ahmad TB, Carlile GW, Pappin D, Narsimhan RP, Ley SC. Activation of MEK-1 and SEK-1 by Tpl-2 proto-oncoprotein, a novel MAP kinase kinase kinase. EMBO J. 1996 Feb 15;15(4):817–826. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sánchez I, Hughes RT, Mayer BJ, Yee K, Woodgett JR, Avruch J, Kyriakis JM, Zon LI. Role of SAPK/ERK kinase-1 in the stress-activated pathway regulating transcription factor c-Jun. Nature. 1994 Dec 22;372(6508):794–798. [PubMed]
  • Ichijo H, Nishida E, Irie K, ten Dijke P, Saitoh M, Moriguchi T, Takagi M, Matsumoto K, Miyazono K, Gotoh Y. Induction of apoptosis by ASK1, a mammalian MAPKKK that activates SAPK/JNK and p38 signaling pathways. Science. 1997 Jan 3;275(5296):90–94. [PubMed]
  • Kyriakis JM, Avruch J. Sounding the alarm: protein kinase cascades activated by stress and inflammation. J Biol Chem. 1996 Oct 4;271(40):24313–24316. [PubMed]
  • Streuli M, Hall LR, Saga Y, Schlossman SF, Saito H. Differential usage of three exons generates at least five different mRNAs encoding human leukocyte common antigens. J Exp Med. 1987 Nov 1;166(5):1548–1566. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kyriakis JM, Banerjee P, Nikolakaki E, Dai T, Rubie EA, Ahmad MF, Avruch J, Woodgett JR. The stress-activated protein kinase subfamily of c-Jun kinases. Nature. 1994 May 12;369(6476):156–160. [PubMed]
  • Lange-Carter CA, Pleiman CM, Gardner AM, Blumer KJ, Johnson GL. A divergence in the MAP kinase regulatory network defined by MEK kinase and Raf. Science. 1993 Apr 16;260(5106):315–319. [PubMed]
  • Waskiewicz AJ, Cooper JA. Mitogen and stress response pathways: MAP kinase cascades and phosphatase regulation in mammals and yeast. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1995 Dec;7(6):798–805. [PubMed]
  • Lin A, Minden A, Martinetto H, Claret FX, Lange-Carter C, Mercurio F, Johnson GL, Karin M. Identification of a dual specificity kinase that activates the Jun kinases and p38-Mpk2. Science. 1995 Apr 14;268(5208):286–290. [PubMed]
  • Minden A, Lin A, Claret FX, Abo A, Karin M. Selective activation of the JNK signaling cascade and c-Jun transcriptional activity by the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42Hs. Cell. 1995 Jun 30;81(7):1147–1157. [PubMed]
  • Ninomiya-Tsuji J, Nomoto S, Yasuda H, Reed SI, Matsumoto K. Cloning of a human cDNA encoding a CDC2-related kinase by complementation of a budding yeast cdc28 mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Oct 15;88(20):9006–9010. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ota IM, Varshavsky A. A yeast protein similar to bacterial two-component regulators. Science. 1993 Oct 22;262(5133):566–569. [PubMed]
  • Pandey P, Raingeaud J, Kaneki M, Weichselbaum R, Davis RJ, Kufe D, Kharbanda S. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by c-Abl-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 1996 Sep 27;271(39):23775–23779. [PubMed]
  • Posas F, Saito H. Osmotic activation of the HOG MAPK pathway via Ste11p MAPKKK: scaffold role of Pbs2p MAPKK. Science. 1997 Jun 13;276(5319):1702–1705. [PubMed]
  • Posas F, Wurgler-Murphy SM, Maeda T, Witten EA, Thai TC, Saito H. Yeast HOG1 MAP kinase cascade is regulated by a multistep phosphorelay mechanism in the SLN1-YPD1-SSK1 "two-component" osmosensor. Cell. 1996 Sep 20;86(6):865–875. [PubMed]
  • Raingeaud J, Whitmarsh AJ, Barrett T, Dérijard B, Davis RJ. MKK3- and MKK6-regulated gene expression is mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1996 Mar;16(3):1247–1255. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from The EMBO Journal are provided here courtesy of The European Molecular Biology Organization

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • Conserved Domains
    Conserved Domains
    Link to related CDD entry
  • Gene
    Gene
    Gene links
  • Gene (nucleotide)
    Gene (nucleotide)
    Records in Gene identified from shared sequence links
  • GEO Profiles
    GEO Profiles
    Related GEO records
  • HomoloGene
    HomoloGene
    HomoloGene links
  • Nucleotide
    Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • OMIM
    OMIM
    OMIM record citing PubMed
  • Pathways + GO
    Pathways + GO
    Pathways, annotations and biological systems (BioSystems) that cite the current article.
  • Protein
    Protein
    Published protein sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...