• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of embojLink to Publisher's site
EMBO J. Jan 2, 1997; 16(1): 98–109.
PMCID: PMC1169617

White collar 2, a partner in blue-light signal transduction, controlling expression of light-regulated genes in Neurospora crassa.

Abstract

A saturating genetic dissection of 'blind' mutants in Neurospora crassa has identified a total of two non-redundant loci (wc-1 and wc-2) each of which is required for blue-light perception/signal transduction. Previously, we demonstrated that WC1 is a putative zinc finger transcription factor able to bind specifically to a light-regulated promoter. Here, we present the cloning and characterization of the wc-2 gene. We demonstrate using mutation analysis and in vitro DNA-binding assays that WC2, the second partner of this light signal transduction system, encodes a functional zinc finger DNA-binding protein with putative PAS dimerization and transcription activation domains. This molecular genetic dissection of the second of two components of this light signal transduction system has enabled us to devise a model whereby WC1 and WC2 are proposed to interact via homologous PAS domains, bind to promoters of light-regulated genes and activate transcription. As such, this study provides the first insight into two co-operating partners in blue-light signal transduction in any organism and describes the molecular tools with which to dissect this enigmatic process.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (847K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Harding RW, Turner RV. Photoregulation of the Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathway in Albino and White Collar Mutants of Neurospora crassa. Plant Physiol. 1981 Sep;68(3):745–749. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hess SM, Stanford DR, Hopper AK. SRD1, a S. cerevisiae gene affecting pre-rRNA processing contains a C2/C2 zinc finger motif. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994 Apr 11;22(7):1265–1271. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hope IA, Mahadevan S, Struhl K. Structural and functional characterization of the short acidic transcriptional activation region of yeast GCN4 protein. Nature. 1988 Jun 16;333(6174):635–640. [PubMed]
  • Huang ZJ, Edery I, Rosbash M. PAS is a dimerization domain common to Drosophila period and several transcription factors. Nature. 1993 Jul 15;364(6434):259–262. [PubMed]
  • Jackson FR, Bargiello TA, Yun SH, Young MW. Product of per locus of Drosophila shares homology with proteoglycans. Nature. 1986 Mar 13;320(6058):185–188. [PubMed]
  • Kang S, Metzenberg RL. Insertional mutagenesis in Neurospora crassa: cloning and molecular analysis of the preg+ gene controlling the activity of the transcriptional activator NUC-1. Genetics. 1993 Feb;133(2):193–202. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kaufman LS. Transduction of Blue-Light Signals. Plant Physiol. 1993 Jun;102(2):333–337. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ballario P, Vittorioso P, Magrelli A, Talora C, Cabibbo A, Macino G. White collar-1, a central regulator of blue light responses in Neurospora, is a zinc finger protein. EMBO J. 1996 Apr 1;15(7):1650–1657. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bowler C, Chua NH. Emerging themes of plant signal transduction. Plant Cell. 1994 Nov;6(11):1529–1541. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lauter FR, Russo VE. Blue light induction of conidiation-specific genes in Neurospora crassa. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Dec 25;19(24):6883–6886. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lin C, Robertson DE, Ahmad M, Raibekas AA, Jorns MS, Dutton PL, Cashmore AR. Association of flavin adenine dinucleotide with the Arabidopsis blue light receptor CRY1. Science. 1995 Aug 18;269(5226):968–970. [PubMed]
  • Burbach KM, Poland A, Bradfield CA. Cloning of the Ah-receptor cDNA reveals a distinctive ligand-activated transcription factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Sep 1;89(17):8185–8189. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Carattoli A, Romano N, Ballario P, Morelli G, Macino G. The Neurospora crassa carotenoid biosynthetic gene (albino 3) reveals highly conserved regions among prenyltransferases. J Biol Chem. 1991 Mar 25;266(9):5854–5859. [PubMed]
  • Mermod N, O'Neill EA, Kelly TJ, Tjian R. The proline-rich transcriptional activator of CTF/NF-I is distinct from the replication and DNA binding domain. Cell. 1989 Aug 25;58(4):741–753. [PubMed]
  • Chary P, Hallewell RA, Natvig DO. Structure, exon pattern, and chromosome mapping of the gene for cytosolic copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (sod-1) from Neurospora crassa. J Biol Chem. 1990 Nov 5;265(31):18961–18967. [PubMed]
  • Orbach MJ, Sachs MS, Yanofsky C. The Neurospora crassa arg-2 locus. Structure and expression of the gene encoding the small subunit of arginine-specific carbamoyl phosphate synthetase. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jul 5;265(19):10981–10987. [PubMed]
  • Paietta JV, Marzluf GA. Gene disruption by transformation in Neurospora crassa. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Jul;5(7):1554–1559. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Deng XW. Fresh view of light signal transduction in plants. Cell. 1994 Feb 11;76(3):423–426. [PubMed]
  • Paietta J, Sargent ML. Photoreception in Neurospora crassa: correlation of reduced light sensitivity with flavin deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Sep;78(9):5573–5577. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Degli-Innocenti F, Russo VE. Isolation of new white collar mutants of Neurospora crassa and studies on their behavior in the blue light-induced formation of protoperithecia. J Bacteriol. 1984 Aug;159(2):757–761. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Paietta J, Sargent ML. Isolation and characterization of light-insensitive mutants of Neurospora crassa. Genetics. 1983 May;104(1):11–21. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Paluh JL, Orbach MJ, Legerton TL, Yanofsky C. The cross-pathway control gene of Neurospora crassa, cpc-1, encodes a protein similar to GCN4 of yeast and the DNA-binding domain of the oncogene v-jun-encoded protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jun;85(11):3728–3732. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Romano N, Macino G. Quelling: transient inactivation of gene expression in Neurospora crassa by transformation with homologous sequences. Mol Microbiol. 1992 Nov;6(22):3343–3353. [PubMed]
  • Schmidhauser TJ, Lauter FR, Russo VE, Yanofsky C. Cloning, sequence, and photoregulation of al-1, a carotenoid biosynthetic gene of Neurospora crassa. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Oct;10(10):5064–5070. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schmidhauser TJ, Lauter FR, Schumacher M, Zhou W, Russo VE, Yanofsky C. Characterization of al-2, the phytoene synthase gene of Neurospora crassa. Cloning, sequence analysis, and photoregulation. J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 22;269(16):12060–12066. [PubMed]
  • Selker EU. Premeiotic instability of repeated sequences in Neurospora crassa. Annu Rev Genet. 1990;24:579–613. [PubMed]
  • Sessa G, Morelli G, Ruberti I. The Athb-1 and -2 HD-Zip domains homodimerize forming complexes of different DNA binding specificities. EMBO J. 1993 Sep;12(9):3507–3517. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smith DB, Johnson KS. Single-step purification of polypeptides expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions with glutathione S-transferase. Gene. 1988 Jul 15;67(1):31–40. [PubMed]
  • Stuart WD, Koo K, Vollmer SJ. Cloning of mtr, an amino acid transport gene of Neurospora crassa. Genome. 1988 Apr;30(2):198–203. [PubMed]
  • Vollmer SJ, Yanofsky C. Efficient cloning of genes of Neurospora crassa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Jul;83(13):4869–4873. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wang GL, Jiang BH, Rue EA, Semenza GL. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 is a basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS heterodimer regulated by cellular O2 tension. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jun 6;92(12):5510–5514. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zeng H, Qian Z, Myers MP, Rosbash M. A light-entrainment mechanism for the Drosophila circadian clock. Nature. 1996 Mar 14;380(6570):129–135. [PubMed]

Articles from The EMBO Journal are provided here courtesy of The European Molecular Biology Organization

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...