• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of embojLink to Publisher's site
EMBO J. Jul 1986; 5(7): 1601–1606.
PMCID: PMC1166985

Characterization of a human gene inducible by alpha- and beta-interferons and its expression in mouse cells.


An intact interferon-inducible gene has been isolated from a cosmid library of human genomic DNA. The gene (designated 6-16) encodes a mRNA of approximately 1 kb which is induced well by alpha- and beta- but poorly by gamma-interferons. Genomic and cDNA sequences indicate that the gene contains five exons, and that the mRNA encodes a hydrophobic polypeptide of 130 amino acids with a putative NH2-terminal signal sequence. The 5' end has been identified by primer extension. The corresponding genomic DNA contains a TATA box 20 nucleotides upstream of the putative transcription initiation site. After transfection of the human genomic cosmid into mouse Ltk- cells, human 6-16 mRNA is expressed in response to mouse alpha- and beta- but not gamma-interferons with the same kinetics and dose-response as in the human cells. No such expression is observed in response to human interferons. It can be concluded that the human cosmid DNA contains all of the sequences necessary for alpha- and beta-interferon-induced gene expression and that the mechanisms governing such expression are conserved between murine and human cells.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Allen G, Fantes KH, Burke DC, Morser J. Analysis and purification of human lymphoblastoid (Namalwa) interferon using a monoclonal antibody. J Gen Virol. 1982 Nov;63(Pt 1):207–212. [PubMed]
  • Benech P, Mory Y, Revel M, Chebath J. Structure of two forms of the interferon-induced (2'-5') oligo A synthetase of human cells based on cDNAs and gene sequences. EMBO J. 1985 Sep;4(9):2249–2256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berget SM. Are U4 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins involved in polyadenylation? Nature. 1984 May 10;309(5964):179–182. [PubMed]
  • Birnstiel ML, Busslinger M, Strub K. Transcription termination and 3' processing: the end is in site! Cell. 1985 Jun;41(2):349–359. [PubMed]
  • Burrone OR, Milstein C. Control of HLA-A,B,C synthesis and expression in interferon-treated cells. EMBO J. 1982;1(3):345–349. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Breathnach R, Chambon P. Organization and expression of eucaryotic split genes coding for proteins. Annu Rev Biochem. 1981;50:349–383. [PubMed]
  • Colbere-Garapin F, Chousterman S, Horodniceanu F, Kourilsky P, Garapin AC. Cloning of the active thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 in Escherichia coli K-12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Aug;76(8):3755–3759. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Efstratiadis A, Posakony JW, Maniatis T, Lawn RM, O'Connell C, Spritz RA, DeRiel JK, Forget BG, Weissman SM, Slightom JL, et al. The structure and evolution of the human beta-globin gene family. Cell. 1980 Oct;21(3):653–668. [PubMed]
  • Friedman RL, Stark GR. alpha-Interferon-induced transcription of HLA and metallothionein genes containing homologous upstream sequences. Nature. 1985 Apr 18;314(6012):637–639. [PubMed]
  • Friedman RL, Manly SP, McMahon M, Kerr IM, Stark GR. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of interferon-induced gene expression in human cells. Cell. 1984 Oct;38(3):745–755. [PubMed]
  • Gorman CM, Howard BH, Reeves R. Expression of recombinant plasmids in mammalian cells is enhanced by sodium butyrate. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Nov 11;11(21):7631–7648. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hohn B, Collins J. A small cosmid for efficient cloning of large DNA fragments. Gene. 1980 Nov;11(3-4):291–298. [PubMed]
  • Houghton M, Stewart AG, Doel SM, Emtage JS, Eaton MA, Smith JC, Patel TP, Lewis HM, Porter AG, Birch JR, et al. The amino-terminal sequence of human fibroblast interferon as deduced from reverse transcripts obtained using synthetic oligonucleotide primers. Nucleic Acids Res. 1980 May 10;8(9):1913–1931. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Keller W. The RNA lariat: a new ring to the splicing of mRNA precursors. Cell. 1984 Dec;39(3 Pt 2):423–425. [PubMed]
  • Kelly JM, Gilbert CS, Stark GR, Kerr IM. Differential regulation of interferon-induced mRNAs and c-myc mRNA by alpha- and gamma-interferons. Eur J Biochem. 1985 Dec 2;153(2):367–371. [PubMed]
  • Kozak M. Compilation and analysis of sequences upstream from the translational start site in eukaryotic mRNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Jan 25;12(2):857–872. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kyte J, Doolittle RF. A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein. J Mol Biol. 1982 May 5;157(1):105–132. [PubMed]
  • Larner AC, Jonak G, Cheng YS, Korant B, Knight E, Darnell JE., Jr Transcriptional induction of two genes in human cells by beta interferon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Nov;81(21):6733–6737. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lindenmaier W, Hauser H, de Wilke IG, Schütz G. Gene shuttling: moving of cloned DNA into and out of eukaryotic cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Feb 25;10(4):1243–1256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Luster AD, Unkeless JC, Ravetch JV. Gamma-interferon transcriptionally regulates an early-response gene containing homology to platelet proteins. Nature. 1985 Jun 20;315(6021):672–676. [PubMed]
  • McKnight SL, Kingsbury R. Transcriptional control signals of a eukaryotic protein-coding gene. Science. 1982 Jul 23;217(4557):316–324. [PubMed]
  • McLauchlan J, Gaffney D, Whitton JL, Clements JB. The consensus sequence YGTGTTYY located downstream from the AATAAA signal is required for efficient formation of mRNA 3' termini. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Feb 25;13(4):1347–1368. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McMahon M, Stark GR, Kerr IM. Interferon-induced gene expression in wild-type and interferon-resistant human lymphoblastoid (Daudi) cells. J Virol. 1986 Jan;57(1):362–366. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mount SM. A catalogue of splice junction sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Jan 22;10(2):459–472. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Norrander J, Kempe T, Messing J. Construction of improved M13 vectors using oligodeoxynucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Gene. 1983 Dec;26(1):101–106. [PubMed]
  • Parker BA, Stark GR. Regulation of simian virus 40 transcription: sensitive analysis of the RNA species present early in infections by virus or viral DNA. J Virol. 1979 Aug;31(2):360–369. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reed R, Maniatis T. Intron sequences involved in lariat formation during pre-mRNA splicing. Cell. 1985 May;41(1):95–105. [PubMed]
  • Rosa F, Le Bouteiller PP, Abadie A, Mishal Z, Lemonnier FA, Bourrel D, Lamotte M, Kalil J, Jordan B, Fellous M. HLA class I genes integrated into murine cells are inducible by interferon. Eur J Immunol. 1983 Jun;13(6):495–499. [PubMed]
  • Rosa F, Hatat D, Abadie A, Wallach D, Revel M, Fellous M. Differential regulation of HLA-DR mRNAs and cell surface antigens by interferon. EMBO J. 1983;2(9):1585–1589. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sanger F. Determination of nucleotide sequences in DNA. Science. 1981 Dec 11;214(4526):1205–1210. [PubMed]
  • Sharp PA. Conversion of RNA to DNA in mammals: Alu-like elements and pseudogenes. Nature. 1983 Feb 10;301(5900):471–472. [PubMed]
  • Staeheli P, Haller O, Boll W, Lindenmann J, Weissmann C. Mx protein: constitutive expression in 3T3 cells transformed with cloned Mx cDNA confers selective resistance to influenza virus. Cell. 1986 Jan 17;44(1):147–158. [PubMed]
  • von Heijne G. How signal sequences maintain cleavage specificity. J Mol Biol. 1984 Feb 25;173(2):243–251. [PubMed]
  • von Heijne G. Signal sequences. The limits of variation. J Mol Biol. 1985 Jul 5;184(1):99–105. [PubMed]
  • Yoshie O, Schmidt H, Lengyel P, Reddy ES, Morgan WR, Weissman SM. Transcripts of human HLA gene fragments lacking the 5'-terminal region in transfected mouse cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Feb;81(3):649–653. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from The EMBO Journal are provided here courtesy of The European Molecular Biology Organization


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • Gene
    Gene links
  • Gene (nucleotide)
    Gene (nucleotide)
    Records in Gene identified from shared sequence links
  • GEO Profiles
    GEO Profiles
    Related GEO records
  • HomoloGene
    HomoloGene links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • OMIM
    OMIM record citing PubMed
  • Pathways + GO
    Pathways + GO
    Pathways, annotations and biological systems (BioSystems) that cite the current article.
  • Protein
    Published protein sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links