• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of biochemjBJ Latest papers and much more!
Biochem J. Mar 15, 1990; 266(3): 625–636.
PMCID: PMC1131186

Gamma-carboxyglutamate-containing proteins and the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Dam H. The antihaemorrhagic vitamin of the chick. Biochem J. 1935 Jun;29(6):1273–1285. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stenflo J, Fernlund P, Egan W, Roepstorff P. Vitamin K dependent modifications of glutamic acid residues in prothrombin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Jul;71(7):2730–2733. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nelsestuen GL, Zytkovicz TH, Howard JB. The mode of action of vitamin K. Identification of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid as a component of prothrombin. J Biol Chem. 1974 Oct 10;249(19):6347–6350. [PubMed]
  • Magnusson S, Sottrup-Jensen L, Petersen TE, Morris HR, Dell A. Primary structure of the vitamin K-dependent part of prothrombin. FEBS Lett. 1974 Aug 25;44(2):189–193. [PubMed]
  • Zytkovicz TH, Nelsestuen GL. [3H]diborane reduction of vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding proteins. Identification of a unique amino acid. J Biol Chem. 1975 Apr 25;250(8):2968–2972. [PubMed]
  • Vermeer C, Govers-Riemslag JW, Soute BA, Lindhout MJ, Kop J, Hemker HC. The role of blood clotting factor V in the conversion of prothrombin and a decarboxy prothrombin into thrombin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Feb 1;538(3):521–533. [PubMed]
  • Hauschka PV, Henson EB, Gallop PM. Quantitative analysis and comparative decarboxylation of aminomalonic acid, beta-carboxyaspartic acid, and gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. Anal Biochem. 1980 Oct;108(1):57–63. [PubMed]
  • Pecci L, Cavallini D. A colorimetric procedure for the determination of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. Anal Biochem. 1981 Nov 15;118(1):70–75. [PubMed]
  • Matsu-ura S, Yamamoto S, Makita M. Determination of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in human urine by gas-liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem. 1981 Jul 1;114(2):371–376. [PubMed]
  • Rose K, Priddle JD, Offord RE, Esnouf MP. A mass-spectrometric method for the estimation of the ratio of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid to glutamic acid at specific sites in proteins. Application to the N-terminal region of bovine prothrombin. Biochem J. 1980 Apr 1;187(1):239–243. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuwada M, Katayama K. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid and glutamic acid in proteins, bone, and urine. Anal Biochem. 1981 Nov 1;117(2):259–265. [PubMed]
  • Kuwada M, Katayama K. An improved method for the determination of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in proteins, bone, and urine. Anal Biochem. 1983 May;131(1):173–179. [PubMed]
  • Smalley DM, Preusch PC. Analysis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid by reverse phase HPLC of its phenylthiocarbamyl derivative. Anal Biochem. 1988 Jul;172(1):241–247. [PubMed]
  • Haroon Y. Rapid assay for gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in urine and bone by precolumn derivatization and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem. 1984 Aug 1;140(2):343–348. [PubMed]
  • Hauschka PV. Specific tritium labeling of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in proteins. Biochemistry. 1979 Oct 30;18(22):4992–4999. [PubMed]
  • Huq NL, Rambaud SM, Teh LC, Davies AD, McCulloch B, Trotter MM, Chapman GE. Immunochemical detection and characterisation of osteocalcin from moa bone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1985 Jun 28;129(3):714–720. [PubMed]
  • Ulrich MM, Perizonius WR, Spoor CF, Sandberg P, Vermeer C. Extraction of osteocalcin from fossil bones and teeth. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 Dec 16;149(2):712–719. [PubMed]
  • Vermeer C, Hendrix H, Daemen M. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylases from non-hepatic tissues. FEBS Lett. 1982 Nov 8;148(2):317–320. [PubMed]
  • Buchthal SD, Bell RG. Vitamin K dependent carboxylation of glutamate residues to gamma-carboxyglutamate in microsomes from spleen and testes: comparison with liver, lung, and kidney. Biochemistry. 1983 Mar 1;22(5):1077–1082. [PubMed]
  • Hauschka PV, Friedman PA, Traverso HP, Gallop PM. Vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxyglutamic acid formation by kidney microsomes in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1976 Aug 23;71(4):1207–1213. [PubMed]
  • de Boer-van den Berg MA, Verstijnen CP, Vermeer C. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase in skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1986 Sep;87(3):377–380. [PubMed]
  • de Boer-van den Berg MA, Uitendaal MP, Vermeer C. Direct measurement of vitamin K-dependent enzymes in various isolated and cultured tumor and non-tumor cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 1987 May;75(1):71–76. [PubMed]
  • Wallin R, Rannels SR. Identification of vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity in lung type II cells but not in lung macrophages. Biochem J. 1988 Mar 1;250(2):557–563. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Davie EW, Fujikawa K. Basic mechanisms in blood coagulation. Annu Rev Biochem. 1975;44:799–829. [PubMed]
  • Katayama K, Ericsson LH, Enfield DL, Walsh KA, Neurath H, Davie EW, Titani K. Comparison of amino acid sequence of bovine coagulation Factor IX (Christmas Factor) with that of other vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Oct;76(10):4990–4994. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stenflo J. A new vitamin K-dependent protein. Purification from bovine plasma and preliminary characterization. J Biol Chem. 1976 Jan 25;251(2):355–363. [PubMed]
  • Stenflo J, Jönsson M. Protein S, a new vitamin K-dependent protein from bovine plasma. FEBS Lett. 1979 May 15;101(2):377–381. [PubMed]
  • Højrup P, Roepstorff P, Petersen TE. Amino-acid sequence of the vitamin-K-dependent part of protein Z. Eur J Biochem. 1982 Aug;126(2):343–348. [PubMed]
  • Stenflo J. Structure and function of protein C. Semin Thromb Hemost. 1984 Apr;10(2):109–121. [PubMed]
  • Walker FJ. Protein S and the regulation of activated protein C. Semin Thromb Hemost. 1984 Apr;10(2):131–138. [PubMed]
  • Hauschka PV, Reid ML. Vitamin D dependence of a calcium-binding protein containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in chicken bone. J Biol Chem. 1978 Dec 25;253(24):9063–9068. [PubMed]
  • Price PA, Otsuka AA, Poser JW, Kristaponis J, Raman N. Characterization of a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein from bone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 May;73(5):1447–1451. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Linde A, Bhown M, Cothran WC, Höglund A, Butler WT. Evidence for several gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing proteins in dentin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982 Jun 4;704(2):235–239. [PubMed]
  • Lian JB, Prien EL, Jr, Glimcher MJ, Gallop PM. The presence of protein-bound gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in calcium-containing renal calculi. J Clin Invest. 1977 Jun;59(6):1151–1157. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hamilton SE, King G, Tesch D, Riddles PW, Keough DT, Jell J, Zerner B. gamma-Carboxyglutamic acid in invertebrates: its identification in hermatypic corals. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1982 Sep 30;108(2):610–613. [PubMed]
  • Hauschka PV, Carr SA. Calcium-dependent alpha-helical structure in osteocalcin. Biochemistry. 1982 May 11;21(10):2538–2547. [PubMed]
  • Price PA, Urist MR, Otawara Y. Matrix Gla protein, a new gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein which is associated with the organic matrix of bone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983 Dec 28;117(3):765–771. [PubMed]
  • Fraser JD, Price PA. Lung, heart, and kidney express high levels of mRNA for the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein. Implications for the possible functions of matrix Gla protein and for the tissue distribution of the gamma-carboxylase. J Biol Chem. 1988 Aug 15;263(23):11033–11036. [PubMed]
  • Price PA, Parthemore JG, Deftos LJ. New biochemical marker for bone metabolism. Measurement by radioimmunoassay of bone GLA protein in the plasma of normal subjects and patients with bone disease. J Clin Invest. 1980 Nov;66(5):878–883. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Delmas PD, Demiaux B, Malaval L, Chapuy MC, Edouard C, Meunier PJ. Serum bone gamma carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein in primary hyperparathyroidism and in malignant hypercalcemia. Comparison with bone histomorphometry. J Clin Invest. 1986 Mar;77(3):985–991. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gundberg CM, Lian JB, Gallop PM, Steinberg JJ. Urinary gamma-carboxyglutamic acid and serum osteocalcin as bone markers: studies in osteoporosis and Paget's disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Dec;57(6):1221–1225. [PubMed]
  • Pettifor JM, Benson R. Congenital malformations associated with the administration of oral anticoagulants during pregnancy. J Pediatr. 1975 Mar;86(3):459–462. [PubMed]
  • Price PA, Williamson MK, Haba T, Dell RB, Jee WS. Excessive mineralization with growth plate closure in rats on chronic warfarin treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Dec;79(24):7734–7738. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van de Loo PG, Soute BA, van Haarlem LJ, Vermeer C. The effect of Gla-containing proteins on the precipitation of insoluble salts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 Jan 15;142(1):113–119. [PubMed]
  • Romberg RW, Werness PG, Riggs BL, Mann KG. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite crystal growth by bone-specific and other calcium-binding proteins. Biochemistry. 1986 Mar 11;25(5):1176–1180. [PubMed]
  • Lian JB, Dunn K, Key LL., Jr In vitro degradation of bone particles by human monocytes is decreased with the depletion of the vitamin K-dependent bone protein from the matrix. Endocrinology. 1986 Apr;118(4):1636–1642. [PubMed]
  • Soute BA, Müller-Esterl W, de Boer-van den Berg MA, Ulrich M, Vermeer C. Discovery of a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein in human spermatozoa. FEBS Lett. 1985 Oct 7;190(1):137–141. [PubMed]
  • Nakagawa Y, Abram V, Kézdy FJ, Kaiser ET, Coe FL. Purification and characterization of the principal inhibitor of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth in human urine. J Biol Chem. 1983 Oct 25;258(20):12594–12600. [PubMed]
  • Nakagawa Y, Abram V, Parks JH, Lau HS, Kawooya JK, Coe FL. Urine glycoprotein crystal growth inhibitors. Evidence for a molecular abnormality in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. J Clin Invest. 1985 Oct;76(4):1455–1462. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rannels SR, Gallaher KJ, Wallin R, Rannels DE. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Aug;84(16):5952–5956. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tans G, Govers-Riemslag JW, van Rijn JL, Rosing J. Purification and properties of a prothrombin activator from the venom of Notechis scutatus scutatus. J Biol Chem. 1985 Aug 5;260(16):9366–9372. [PubMed]
  • Speijer H, Govers-Riemslag JW, Zwaal RF, Rosing J. Prothrombin activation by an activator from the venom of Oxyuranus scutellatus (Taipan snake). J Biol Chem. 1986 Oct 5;261(28):13258–13267. [PubMed]
  • McIntosh JM, Olivera BM, Cruz LJ, Gray WR. Gamma-carboxyglutamate in a neuroactive toxin. J Biol Chem. 1984 Dec 10;259(23):14343–14346. [PubMed]
  • Helgeland L. The submicrosomal site for the conversion of prothrombin precursor to biologically active prothrombin in rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977 Sep 29;499(2):181–193. [PubMed]
  • Esmon CT, Suttie JW. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. Solubilization and properties. J Biol Chem. 1976 Oct 25;251(20):6238–6243. [PubMed]
  • Girardot JM, Johnson BC. A new detergent for the solubilization of the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation system from liver microsomes: comparison with triton X-100. Anal Biochem. 1982 Apr;121(2):315–320. [PubMed]
  • Esmon CT, Sadowski JA, Suttie JW. A new carboxylation reaction. The vitamin K-dependent incorporation of H-14-CO3- into prothrombin. J Biol Chem. 1975 Jun 25;250(12):4744–4748. [PubMed]
  • Suttie JW, Hageman JM. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. Development of a peptide substrate. J Biol Chem. 1976 Sep 25;251(18):5827–5830. [PubMed]
  • Houser RM, Carey DJ, Dus KM, Marshall GR, Olson RE. Partial sequence of rat prothrombin and the activity of two related pentapeptides as substrates for the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase system. FEBS Lett. 1977 Mar 15;75(1):226–230. [PubMed]
  • Olson RE. The function and metabolism of vitamin K. Annu Rev Nutr. 1984;4:281–337. [PubMed]
  • Suttie JW. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. Annu Rev Biochem. 1985;54:459–477. [PubMed]
  • de Metz M, Vermeer C, Soute BA, van Scharrenburg GJ, Slotboom AJ, Hemker HC. Partial purification of bovine liver vitamin K-dependent carboxylase by immunospecific adsorption onto antifactor X. FEBS Lett. 1981 Jan 26;123(2):215–218. [PubMed]
  • de Metz M, Vermeer C, Soute BA, Hemker HC. Identification of phospholipid as an essential part of bovine vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. J Biol Chem. 1981 Nov 10;256(21):10843–10846. [PubMed]
  • Soute BA, Ulrich MM, Vermeer C. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase: increased efficiency of the carboxylation reaction. Thromb Haemost. 1987 Feb 3;57(1):77–81. [PubMed]
  • Hubbard BR, Ulrich MM, Jacobs M, Vermeer C, Walsh C, Furie B, Furie BC. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase: affinity purification from bovine liver by using a synthetic propeptide containing the gamma-carboxylation recognition site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Sep;86(18):6893–6897. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Degen SJ, MacGillivray RT, Davie EW. Characterization of the complementary deoxyribonucleic acid and gene coding for human prothrombin. Biochemistry. 1983 Apr 26;22(9):2087–2097. [PubMed]
  • Fung MR, Hay CW, MacGillivray RT. Characterization of an almost full-length cDNA coding for human blood coagulation factor X. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Jun;82(11):3591–3595. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kurachi K, Davie EW. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA coding for human factor IX. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Nov;79(21):6461–6464. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hagen FS, Gray CL, O'Hara P, Grant FJ, Saari GC, Woodbury RG, Hart CE, Insley M, Kisiel W, Kurachi K, et al. Characterization of a cDNA coding for human factor VII. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Apr;83(8):2412–2416. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Foster DC, Yoshitake S, Davie EW. The nucleotide sequence of the gene for human protein C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Jul;82(14):4673–4677. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lundwall A, Dackowski W, Cohen E, Shaffer M, Mahr A, Dahlbäck B, Stenflo J, Wydro R. Isolation and sequence of the cDNA for human protein S, a regulator of blood coagulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Sep;83(18):6716–6720. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • MacGillivray RT, Davie EW. Characterization of bovine prothrombin mRNA and its translation product. Biochemistry. 1984 Apr 10;23(8):1626–1634. [PubMed]
  • Fung MR, Campbell RM, MacGillivray RT. Blood coagulation factor X mRNA encodes a single polypeptide chain containing a prepro leader sequence. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Jun 11;12(11):4481–4492. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Long GL, Belagaje RM, MacGillivray RT. Cloning and sequencing of liver cDNA coding for bovine protein C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Sep;81(18):5653–5656. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Takeya H, Kawabata S, Nakagawa K, Yamamichi Y, Miyata T, Iwanaga S, Takao T, Shimonishi Y. Bovine factor VII. Its purification and complete amino acid sequence. J Biol Chem. 1988 Oct 15;263(29):14868–14877. [PubMed]
  • Dahlbäck B, Lundwall A, Stenflo J. Primary structure of bovine vitamin K-dependent protein S. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Jun;83(12):4199–4203. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Celeste AJ, Rosen V, Buecker JL, Kriz R, Wang EA, Wozney JM. Isolation of the human gene for bone gla protein utilizing mouse and rat cDNA clones. EMBO J. 1986 Aug;5(8):1885–1890. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Price PA, Poser JW, Raman N. Primary structure of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein from bovine bone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Oct;73(10):3374–3375. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pan LC, Price PA. The propeptide of rat bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein shares homology with other vitamin K-dependent protein precursors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Sep;82(18):6109–6113. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Price PA, Williamson MK. Primary structure of bovine matrix Gla protein, a new vitamin K-dependent bone protein. J Biol Chem. 1985 Dec 5;260(28):14971–14975. [PubMed]
  • Price PA, Fraser JD, Metz-Virca G. Molecular cloning of matrix Gla protein: implications for substrate recognition by the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Dec;84(23):8335–8339. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Diuguid DL, Rabiet MJ, Furie BC, Liebman HA, Furie B. Molecular basis of hemophilia B: a defective enzyme due to an unprocessed propeptide is caused by a point mutation in the factor IX precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Aug;83(16):5803–5807. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bentley AK, Rees DJ, Rizza C, Brownlee GG. Defective propeptide processing of blood clotting factor IX caused by mutation of arginine to glutamine at position -4. Cell. 1986 May 9;45(3):343–348. [PubMed]
  • Hubbard BR, Jacobs M, Ulrich MM, Walsh C, Furie B, Furie BC. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation. In vitro modification of synthetic peptides containing the gamma-carboxylation recognition site. J Biol Chem. 1989 Aug 25;264(24):14145–14150. [PubMed]
  • Anson DS, Austen DE, Brownlee GG. Expression of active human clotting factor IX from recombinant DNA clones in mammalian cells. Nature. 1985 Jun 20;315(6021):683–685. [PubMed]
  • Kaufman RJ, Wasley LC, Furie BC, Furie B, Shoemaker CB. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant gamma-carboxylated factor IX synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem. 1986 Jul 25;261(21):9622–9628. [PubMed]
  • Foster DC, Rudinski MS, Schach BG, Berkner KL, Kumar AA, Hagen FS, Sprecher CA, Insley MY, Davie EW. Propeptide of human protein C is necessary for gamma-carboxylation. Biochemistry. 1987 Nov 3;26(22):7003–7011. [PubMed]
  • Jorgensen MJ, Cantor AB, Furie BC, Brown CL, Shoemaker CB, Furie B. Recognition site directing vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation resides on the propeptide of factor IX. Cell. 1987 Jan 30;48(2):185–191. [PubMed]
  • Knobloch JE, Suttie JW. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. Control of enzyme activity by the "propeptide" region of factor X. J Biol Chem. 1987 Nov 15;262(32):15334–15337. [PubMed]
  • Ulrich MM, Furie B, Jacobs MR, Vermeer C, Furie BC. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation. A synthetic peptide based upon the gamma-carboxylation recognition site sequence of the prothrombin propeptide is an active substrate for the carboxylase in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jul 15;263(20):9697–9702. [PubMed]
  • Rich DH, Lehrman SR, Kawai M, Goodman HL, Suttie JW. Synthesis of peptide analogues of prothrombin precursor sequence 5-9. Substrate specificity of vitamin K dependent carboxylase. J Med Chem. 1981 Jun;24(6):706–711. [PubMed]
  • Vermeer C, Soute BA, Hendrix H, de Boer-van den Berg MA. Decarboxylated bone Gla-protein as a substrate for hepatic vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. FEBS Lett. 1984 Jan 2;165(1):16–20. [PubMed]
  • Soute BA, Vermeer C, De Metz M, Hemker HC, Lijnen HR. In vitro prothrombin synthesis from a purified precursor protein. III. Preparation of an acid-soluble substrate for vitamin K-dependent carboxylase by limited proteolysis of bovine descarboxyprothrombin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1981 Aug 5;676(1):101–107. [PubMed]
  • Price PA. Role of vitamin-K-dependent proteins in bone metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 1988;8:565–583. [PubMed]
  • Freedman RB, Brockway BE, Lambert N. Protein disulphide-isomerase and the formation of native disulphide bonds. Biochem Soc Trans. 1984 Dec;12(6):929–932. [PubMed]
  • Lambert N, Freedman RB. The latency of rat liver microsomal protein disulphide-isomerase. Biochem J. 1985 Jun 15;228(3):635–645. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Larson AE, Friedman PA, Suttie JW. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. Stoichiometry of carboxylation and vitamin K 2,3-epoxide formation. J Biol Chem. 1981 Nov 10;256(21):11032–11035. [PubMed]
  • De Metz M, Soute BA, Hemker HC, Vermeer C. The inhibition of vitamin K-dependent carboxylase by cyanide. FEBS Lett. 1982 Jan 25;137(2):253–256. [PubMed]
  • Sadowski JA, Schnoes HK, Suttie JW. Vitamin K epoxidase: properties and relationship to prothrombin synthesis. Biochemistry. 1977 Aug 23;16(17):3856–3863. [PubMed]
  • Friedman PA, Shia MA, Gallop PM, Griep AE. Vitamin K-dependent gamma-carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage and nonmandatory concurrent carboxylation of peptide-bound glutamic acid residues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Jul;76(7):3126–3129. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McTigue JJ, Suttie JW. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. Demonstration of a vitamin K- and O2-dependent exchange of 3H from 3H2O into glutamic acid residues. J Biol Chem. 1983 Oct 25;258(20):12129–12131. [PubMed]
  • Dubois J, Gaudry M, Bory S, Azerad R, Marquet A. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation. Study of the hydrogen abstraction stereochemistry with gamma-fluoroglutamic acid-containing peptides. J Biol Chem. 1983 Jul 10;258(13):7897–7899. [PubMed]
  • de Boer-van den Berg M, Thijssen HH, Vermeer C. The in vivo effects of oral anticoagulants in man: comparison between liver and non-hepatic tissues. Thromb Haemost. 1988 Apr 8;59(2):147–150. [PubMed]
  • Hazelett SE, Preusch PC. Tissue distribution and warfarin sensitivity of vitamin K epoxide reductase. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988 Mar 1;37(5):929–934. [PubMed]
  • Vermeer C, De Boer-Van den Berg MA. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. Haematologia (Budap) 1985;18(2):71–97. [PubMed]
  • Suttie JW, Preusch PC. Studies of the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase and vitamin K epoxide reductase in rat liver. Haemostasis. 1986;16(3-4):193–215. [PubMed]
  • Shearer MJ, McBurney A, Barkhan P. Studies on the absorption and metabolism of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in man. Vitam Horm. 1974;32:513–542. [PubMed]
  • Preusch PC, Suttie JW. Relationship of dithiothreitol-dependent microsomal vitamin K quinone and vitamin K epoxide reductases inhibition of epoxide reduction by vitamin K quinone. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1984 Mar 22;798(1):141–143. [PubMed]
  • Wallin R, Hutson S. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation. Evidence that at least two microsomal dehydrogenases reduce vitamin K1 to support carboxylation. J Biol Chem. 1982 Feb 25;257(4):1583–1586. [PubMed]
  • Fasco MJ, Hildebrandt EF, Suttie JW. Evidence that warfarin anticoagulant action involves two distinct reductase activities. J Biol Chem. 1982 Oct 10;257(19):11210–11212. [PubMed]
  • Holmgren A. Thioredoxin. Annu Rev Biochem. 1985;54:237–271. [PubMed]
  • Holmgren A, Luthman M. Tissue distrubution and subcellular localization of bovine thioredoxin determined by radioimmunoassay. Biochemistry. 1978 Sep 19;17(19):4071–4077. [PubMed]
  • Johan L, van Haarlem M, Soute BA, Vermeer C. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. Possible role for thioredoxin in the reduction of vitamin K metabolites in liver. FEBS Lett. 1987 Oct 5;222(2):353–357. [PubMed]
  • Silverman RB, Nandi DL. Reduced thioredoxin: a possible physiological cofactor for vitamin K epoxide reductase. Further support for an active site disulfide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Sep 30;155(3):1248–1254. [PubMed]
  • Hildebrandt EF, Suttie JW. Mechanism of coumarin action: sensitivity of vitamin K metabolizing enzymes of normal and warfarin-resistant rat liver. Biochemistry. 1982 May 11;21(10):2406–2411. [PubMed]
  • Fasco MJ, Principe LM. R- and S-Warfarin inhibition of vitamin K and vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase activities in the rat. J Biol Chem. 1982 May 10;257(9):4894–4901. [PubMed]
  • Thijssen HH, Baars LG, Vervoort-Peters HT. Vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase: the basis for stereoselectivity of 4-hydroxycoumarin anticoagulant activity. Br J Pharmacol. 1988 Nov;95(3):675–682. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ulrich MM, Knapen MH, Herrmann-Erlee MP, Vermeer C. Vitamin K is no antagonist for the action of warfarin in rat osteosarcoma UMR 106. Thromb Res. 1988 Apr 1;50(1):27–32. [PubMed]
  • Price PA, Kaneda Y. Vitamin K counteracts the effect of warfarin in liver but not in bone. Thromb Res. 1987 Apr 1;46(1):121–131. [PubMed]
  • van Haarlem LJ, Knapen MH, Hamulyák K, Vermeer C. Circulating osteocalcin during oral anticoagulant therapy. Thromb Haemost. 1988 Aug 30;60(1):79–82. [PubMed]
  • Menon RK, Gill DS, Thomas M, Kernoff PB, Dandona P. Impaired carboxylation of osteocalcin in warfarin-treated patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Jan;64(1):59–61. [PubMed]
  • Hadler MR, Shadbolt RS. Novel 4-hydroxycoumarin anticoagulants active against resistant rats. Nature. 1975 Jan 24;253(5489):275–277. [PubMed]
  • Chong LL, Chau WK, Ho CH. A case of 'superwarfarin' poisoning. Scand J Haematol. 1986 Mar;36(3):314–315. [PubMed]
  • Lipton RA, Klass EM. Human ingestion of a 'superwarfarin' rodenticide resulting in a prolonged anticoagulant effect. JAMA. 1984 Dec 7;252(21):3004–3005. [PubMed]
  • Furie B, Furie BC. The molecular basis of blood coagulation. Cell. 1988 May 20;53(4):505–518. [PubMed]
  • Busby S, Kumar A, Joseph M, Halfpap L, Insley M, Berkner K, Kurachi K, Woodbury R. Expression of active human factor IX in transfected cells. Nature. 1985 Jul 18;316(6025):271–273. [PubMed]
  • Kaufman RJ, Wasley LC, Furie BC, Furie B, Shoemaker CB. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant gamma-carboxylated factor IX synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem. 1986 Jul 25;261(21):9622–9628. [PubMed]
  • Balland A, Faure T, Carvallo D, Cordier P, Ulrich P, Fournet B, de la Salle H, Lecocq JP. Characterisation of two differently processed forms of human recombinant factor IX synthesised in CHO cells transformed with a polycistronic vector. Eur J Biochem. 1988 Mar 15;172(3):565–572. [PubMed]
  • Jorgensen MJ, Cantor AB, Furie BC, Furie B. Expression of completely gamma-carboxylated recombinant human prothrombin. J Biol Chem. 1987 May 15;262(14):6729–6734. [PubMed]
  • Suttie JW, Hoskins JA, Engelke J, Hopfgartner A, Ehrlich H, Bang NU, Belagaje RM, Schoner B, Long GL. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase: possible role of the substrate "propeptide" as an intracellular recognition site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Feb;84(3):634–637. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Soute BA, Balland A, Faure T, de la Salle H, Vermeer C. In vitro carboxylation of a blood coagulation factor IX precursor produced by recombinant-DNA technology. Thromb Haemost. 1989 Apr 25;61(2):238–242. [PubMed]
  • Suttie JW, Hoskins JA, Engelke J, Hopfgartner A, Ehrlich H, Bang NU, Belagaje RM, Schoner B, Long GL. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase: possible role of the substrate "propeptide" as an intracellular recognition site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Feb;84(3):634–637. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ramotar K, Conly JM, Chubb H, Louie TJ. Production of menaquinones by intestinal anaerobes. J Infect Dis. 1984 Aug;150(2):213–218. [PubMed]
  • Suttie JW, Mummah-Schendel LL, Shah DV, Lyle BJ, Greger JL. Vitamin K deficiency from dietary vitamin K restriction in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988 Mar;47(3):475–480. [PubMed]
  • Motohara K, Endo F, Matsuda I. Effect of vitamin K administration on acarboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) levels in newborns. Lancet. 1985 Aug 3;2(8449):242–244. [PubMed]
  • Shearer MJ, Rahim S, Barkhan P, Stimmler L. Plasma vitamin K1 in mothers and their newborn babies. Lancet. 1982 Aug 28;2(8296):460–463. [PubMed]
  • Hamulyák K, de Boer-van den Berg MA, Thijssen HH, Hemker HC, Vermeer C. The placental transport of [3H]vitamin K1 in rats. Br J Haematol. 1987 Mar;65(3):335–338. [PubMed]
  • Andrew M, Paes B, Milner R, Johnston M, Mitchell L, Tollefsen DM, Powers P. Development of the human coagulation system in the full-term infant. Blood. 1987 Jul;70(1):165–172. [PubMed]
  • Haroon Y, Shearer MJ, Rahim S, Gunn WG, McEnery G, Barkhan P. The content of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula foods determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Nutr. 1982 Jun;112(6):1105–1117. [PubMed]
  • Hart JP, Catterall A, Dodds RA, Klenerman L, Shearer MJ, Bitensky L, Chayen J. Circulating vitamin K1 levels in fractured neck of femur. Lancet. 1984 Aug 4;2(8397):283–283. [PubMed]
  • Gallop PM, Lian JB, Hauschka PV. Carboxylated calcium-binding proteins and vitamin K. N Engl J Med. 1980 Jun 26;302(26):1460–1466. [PubMed]
  • Knapen MH, Hamulyák K, Vermeer C. The effect of vitamin K supplementation on circulating osteocalcin (bone Gla protein) and urinary calcium excretion. Ann Intern Med. 1989 Dec 15;111(12):1001–1005. [PubMed]

Articles from Biochemical Journal are provided here courtesy of The Biochemical Society

Formats: