Logo of biochemjBJ Latest papers and much more!
Biochem J. 1992 Feb 1; 281(Pt 3): 665–668.
PMCID: PMC1130742

Protein synthesis in the newt regenerating limb. Comparative two-dimensional PAGE, computer analysis and protein sequencing.


Protein synthesis has been studied by two-dimensional PAGE during the early limb regeneration in the adult newt. Quantitative and statistical analyses have provided unique information on overall patterns of protein synthesis as well as on specific protein synthesis during formation of the blastema. Furthermore, from the patterns in the two-dimensional gels and their quantification, a particular protein has been selected and sequenced. Partial sequencing revealed sequence similarities to Xenopus type I keratin B2. Expression of this keratin is 10-fold greater in the blastema than in the intact limb. The implications of keratin expression by the blastema cells are discussed.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Brockes JP. Retinoids, homeobox genes, and limb morphogenesis. Neuron. 1989 Apr;2(4):1285–1294. [PubMed]
  • Donaldson DJ, Mason JM, Jennings BR. Protein patterns during regeneration and wound healing in the adult newt: a comparative study using gel electrophoresis. Oncology. 1974;30(4):334–346. [PubMed]
  • Ferretti P, Brockes JP. Culture of newt cells from different tissues and their expression of a regeneration-associated antigen. J Exp Zool. 1988 Jul;247(1):77–91. [PubMed]
  • Ferretti P, Fekete DM, Patterson M, Lane EB. Transient expression of simple epithelial keratins by mesenchymal cells of regenerating newt limb. Dev Biol. 1989 Jun;133(2):415–424. [PubMed]
  • Ferretti P, Brockes JP, Brown R. A newt type II keratin restricted to normal and regenerating limbs and tails is responsive to retinoic acid. Development. 1991 Feb;111(2):497–507. [PubMed]
  • Garrels JI. Quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins. Methods Enzymol. 1983;100:411–423. [PubMed]
  • Garrels JI. The QUEST system for quantitative analysis of two-dimensional gels. J Biol Chem. 1989 Mar 25;264(9):5269–5282. [PubMed]
  • Giguère V, Ong ES, Evans RM, Tabin CJ. Spatial and temporal expression of the retinoic acid receptor in the regenerating amphibian limb. Nature. 1989 Feb 9;337(6207):566–569. [PubMed]
  • Maden M. Vitamin A and pattern formation in the regenerating limb. Nature. 1982 Feb 25;295(5851):672–675. [PubMed]
  • Miyatani S, Winkles JA, Sargent TD, Dawid IB. Stage-specific keratins in Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles: the XK81 gene family. J Cell Biol. 1986 Nov;103(5):1957–1965. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ragsdale CW, Jr, Petkovich M, Gates PB, Chambon P, Brockes JP. Identification of a novel retinoic acid receptor in regenerative tissues of the newt. Nature. 1989 Oct 19;341(6243):654–657. [PubMed]
  • Savard P, Gates PB, Brockes JP. Position dependent expression of a homeobox gene transcript in relation to amphibian limb regeneration. EMBO J. 1988 Dec 20;7(13):4275–4282. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Slack JM. Protein synthesis during limb regeneration in the axolotl. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1982 Aug;70:241–260. [PubMed]
  • Tabin CJ. Isolation of potential vertebrate limb-identity genes. Development. 1989 Apr;105(4):813–820. [PubMed]
  • Towbin H, Staehelin T, Gordon J. Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Sep;76(9):4350–4354. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tsonis PA. Molecular approaches in limb development and regeneration. Trends Biochem Sci. 1990 Mar;15(3):82–83. [PubMed]

Articles from Biochemical Journal are provided here courtesy of The Biochemical Society


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Protein
    Protein translation features of primary database (GenBank) nucleotide records reported in the current articles as well as Reference Sequences (RefSeqs) that include the articles as references.
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem chemical substance records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records.

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...