• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of oenvmedOccupational and Environmental MedicineCurrent TOCInstructions for authors
Occup Environ Med. Oct 1996; 53(10): 697–702.
PMCID: PMC1128577

Clinical measures, smoking, radon exposure, and risk of lung cancer in uranium miners.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Exposure to the radioactive daughters of radon is associated with increased risk of lung cancer in mining populations. An investigation of incidence of lung cancer following a clinical survey of Ontario uranium miners was undertaken to explore whether risk associated with radon is modified by factors including smoking, radiographic silicosis, clinical symptoms, the results of lung function testing, and the temporal pattern of radon exposure. METHODS: Miners were examined in 1974 by a respiratory questionnaire, tests of lung function, and chest radiography. A random selection of 733 (75%) of the original 973 participants was followed up by linkage to the Ontario Mortality and Cancer Registries. RESULTS: Incidence of lung cancer was increased threefold. Risk of lung cancer among miners who had stopped smoking was half that of men who continued to smoke. There was no interaction between smoking and radon exposure. Men with lung function test results consistent with airways obstruction had an increased risk of lung cancer, even after adjustment for cigarette smoking. There was no association between radiographic silicosis and risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer was associated with exposures to radon daughters accumulated in a time window four to 14 years before diagnosis, but there was little association with exposures incurred earlier than 14 years before diagnosis. Among the men diagnosed with lung cancer, the mean and median dose rates were 2.6 working level months (WLM) a year and 1.8 WLM/year in the four to 14 year exposure window. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of lung cancer associated with radon is modified by dose and time from exposure. Risk can be substantially decreased by stopping smoking.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Cross FT. Invited commentary: residential radon risks from the perspective of experimental animal studies. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Aug 15;140(4):333–339. [PubMed]
  • Finkelstein MM. Radiographic abnormalities and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to silica dust in Ontario. CMAJ. 1995 Jan 1;152(1):37–43. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lubin JH. Invited commentary: lung cancer and exposure to residential radon. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Aug 15;140(4):323–332. [PubMed]
  • Petersen M, Hankinson J. Spirometry reference values for nonexposed blue-collar workers. J Occup Med. 1985 Sep;27(9):644–650. [PubMed]
  • Kusiak RA, Ritchie AC, Muller J, Springer J. Mortality from lung cancer in Ontario uranium miners. Br J Ind Med. 1993 Oct;50(10):920–928. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coleman M, Douglas A, Hermon C, Peto J. Cohort study analysis with a FORTRAN computer program. Int J Epidemiol. 1986 Mar;15(1):134–137. [PubMed]
  • Lubin JH, Blot WJ. Lung cancer and smoking cessation: patterns of risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993 Mar 17;85(6):422–423. [PubMed]
  • Nomura A, Stemmermann GN, Chyou PH, Marcus EB, Buist AS. Prospective study of pulmonary function and lung cancer. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991 Aug;144(2):307–311. [PubMed]
  • Kuller LH, Ockene J, Meilahn E, Svendsen KH. Relation of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to lung cancer mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Aug;132(2):265–274. [PubMed]
  • Finkelstein MM. Radiographic abnormalities and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to silica dust in Ontario. CMAJ. 1995 Jan 1;152(1):37–43. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kubik A, Parkin DM, Khlat M, Erban J, Polak J, Adamec M. Lack of benefit from semi-annual screening for cancer of the lung: follow-up report of a randomized controlled trial on a population of high-risk males in Czechoslovakia. Int J Cancer. 1990 Jan 15;45(1):26–33. [PubMed]
  • Doll R, Peto R, Wheatley K, Gray R, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ. 1994 Oct 8;309(6959):901–911. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Occupational and Environmental Medicine are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

Links

  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...