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Plant Physiol. 1991 Oct; 97(2): 759–764.
PMCID: PMC1081071

Rhizobium nod Gene Inducers Exuded Naturally from Roots of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) 1


Four compounds exuded from young roots of a black-seeded bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv PI165426CS) induce transcription of nod genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli. The three most active nod gene inducers were identified by spectroscopic methods (ultraviolet/visible absorbance, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry) as being eriodictyol (5,7,3′,4′ -tetrahydroxyflavanone), naringenin (5,7,4′ -trihydroxyflavanone), and a 7-O-glycoside of genistein (5,7,4′ -trihydroxyisoflavone). Comparisons with authentic standards verified the chemical structures of the aglycones and their capacity to induce β-galactosidase activity in R. leguminosarum strains containing nodA-lacZ or nodC-lacZ fusions controlled by R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli nodD genes. Roots of 9-day-old seedlings released 42, 281, and 337 nanomoles per plant per day of genistein, eriodictyol, and naringenin, respectively. Genistein and naringenin induced higher maximum β-galactosidase activities and required lower concentrations for half-maximum induction than eriodictyol. Comparing the nod gene-inducing activity of seed rinses with root exudate from PI165426CS bean showed that root flavonoids were released at about 6% the rate of those from seeds on a molar basis, but on average the individual compounds from roots were approximately three times more active than nod gene inducers from seeds.

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Selected References

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